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  • Author or Editor: Keven Flammer x
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Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole administered orally in single and multiple doses in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Animals—15 clinically normal adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

Procedures—Single doses of voriconazole (12 or 24 mg/kg) were administered orally to 15 and 12 birds, respectively; plasma voriconazole concentrations were determined at intervals via high-pressure liquid chromatography. In a multiple-dose trial, voriconazole (18 mg/kg) or water was administered orally to 6 and 4 birds, respectively, every 8 hours for 11 days (beginning day 0); trough plasma voriconazole concentrations were evaluated on 3 days. Birds were monitored daily, and clinicopathologic variables were evaluated before and after the trial.

Results—Voriconazole elimination half-life was short (0.70 to 1.25 hours). In the single-dose experiments, higher drug doses yielded proportional increases in the maximum plasma voriconazole concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC). In the multiple-dose trial, Cmax, AUC, and plasma concentrations at 2 and 4 hours were decreased on day 10, compared with day 0 values; however, there was relatively little change in terminal half-life. With the exception of 1 voriconazole-treated parrot that developed polyuria, adverse effects were not evident.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, oral administration of voriconazole was associated with proportional kinetics following administration of single doses and a decrease in plasma concentration following administration of multiple doses. Oral administration of 18 mg of voriconazole/kg every 8 hours would require adjustment to maintain therapeutic concentrations during long-term treatment. Safety and efficacy of voriconazole treatment in this species require further investigation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


The adverse effects of administration of gentamicin (5 mg/kg of body weight, im, q 12 h) for 7 days were studied in healthy scarlet macaws (Ara macao) and galahs (Eolophus roseicapillus; cockatoos). Polydipsia and polyuria developed in each species, but were greater and persisted longer in the cockatoos. Peak water intake in the cockatoos more than quadrupled, and remained increased for 23 days after cessation of gentamicin administration. Plasma aspartate transaminase activity increased significantly (P < 0.05) after treatment in the macaws, and plasma aspartate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase activities increased in the cockatoos.

Single im administration of gentamicin (5 mg/kg) resulted in mean (± sem) plasma concentration of 20.6 (± 1.85) μg/ml at 0.5 hour for either species of birds. There were no significant differences between mean plasma gentamicin concentrations for cockatoos and macaws at any time after drug administration, except at 12 hours, when values for cockatoos were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those for macaws. The elimination half-life for gentamicin after im administration of 5 and 10 mg/kg was 1.17 and 1.07 hours, respectively, for macaws and 1.23 and 1.44 hours, respectively, for cockatoos. Correlation between drug disposition and adverse side effects could not be detected.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research