An 8-year-old spayed female Shih Tzu crossbreed dog (dog 1) and a 13-year-old neutered male Miniature Fox Terrier (dog 2) were evaluated for removal of neoplasms involving both the frontal lobe and olfactory bulb.
Physical examination revealed decreased menace response and behavioral changes in both dogs. For dog 1, neuroanatomic localization of the lesion was the left forebrain region; for dog 2, neuroanatomic localization of the lesion was the right forebrain region. Both dogs underwent CT, and dog 1 also underwent MRI. Results of diagnostic imaging were consistent with frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasia in both cases. Dog 1 had lysis of the frontal bone adjacent to the neoplasm.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Both dogs underwent a transorbital craniectomy to permit surgical tumor removal. Dog 1 was discharged from the hospital 48 hours after surgery, at which time its mentation and cranial nerve examination findings were considered normal. Dog 2 developed neurologic deterioration after surgery but was ultimately discharged from the hospital after 72 hours, at which time its mentation appeared normal.
The transorbital approach to the cranium provided excellent access to facilitate removal of frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasms in these 2 dogs.
To establish reference intervals for radial joint orientation angles in the frontal and sagittal planes in small-breed dogs and to compare them to those previously reported for medium- and large-breed dogs.
Antebrachii of 30 skeletally mature, nonchondrodystrophic small-breed dogs were evaluated radiographically.
Orthogonal radiographs were retrospectively assessed to determine the anatomic medial proximal radial angle, anatomic lateral distal radial angle, anatomic cranial proximal radial angle (aCrPRA), and anatomic caudal distal radial angle (aCdDRA). The frontal plane angle, θ angle, and procurvatum were also calculated. The radial joint orientation angles determined were compared to those previously reported for medium- and large-breed dogs via a 1-sample t test.
Mean and SD values for anatomic medial proximal radial angle, anatomic lateral distal radial angle, aCrPRA, and aCdDRA were 80.86 ± 2.86°, 85.60 ± 1.74°, 87.99 ± 2.79°, and 83.08 ± 3.14°, respectively. The mean and SDs for frontal plane angle, θ angle, and procurvatum were 4.75 ± 2.46°, 11.88 ± 1.76°, and 16.79 ± 4.13°, respectively. aCrPRA and aCdDRA were significantly different when compared to previously reported radial joint angles for medium- and large-breed dogs.
Reference intervals for small-breed dog radial joint orientation angles were reported. Significant differences were identified for some joint orientation angles when compared to medium- and large-breed dogs. This small-breed reference interval reported can be utilized in planning of radial angular limb deformity corrective surgery, particularly when dogs are bilaterally affected.