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Objective—To establish a nonterminal semen collection method for use in captive Chilean rose tarantulas (Grammostola rosea) and to evaluate tools for investigating morphology and viability of spermatozoa.

Animals—7 mature male Chilean rose tarantulas.

Procedures—Each tarantula was anesthetized in a 500-mL induction chamber containing a cotton ball infused with 2 mL of isoflurane. Semen collection was performed by applying direct pressure to the palpal bulbs (sperm storage organs) located on the distal segment of the palpal limbs. Morphology of spermatozoa was examined by light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Propidium iodide and a fluorescent membrane-permeant nucleic acid dye were used to evaluate cell viability.

Results—Semen was collected successfully from all 7 tarantulas. Microscopic examination of semen samples revealed coenospermia (spherical capsules [mean ± SD diameter, 10.3 ± 1.6 μm] containing many nonmotile sperm cells [mean number of sperm cells/capsule, 18.5 ± 3.8]). Individual spermatozoa were characterized by a spiral-shaped cell body (mean length, 16.7 ± 1.4 μm; mean anterior diameter, 1.5 ± 0.14 μm). Each spermatozoon had no apparent flagellar structure. The fluorescent stains identified some viable sperm cells in the semen samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The described technique allowed simple and repeatable collection of semen from Chilean rose tarantulas. Semen from this species was characterized by numerous spherical capsules containing many nonmotile spermatozoa in an apparently quiescent state. Fluorescent staining to distinguish live from dead spermatozoa appeared to be a useful tool for semen evaluation in this species.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



Evaluate agreement between 2 non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) techniques and invasive arterial blood pressure (IBP) in anesthetized bats using various cuff sizes and cuff positioning while also evaluating its performance during hypertension and hypotension.


8 bats (1.1 ± 0.2 kg).


Bats were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen. NIBP was measured using oscillometric (NIBP-O) and Doppler (NIBP-D) techniques in the pectoral limb (PEC) and pelvic limbs (PEL) using 3 cuff sizes (1, 2, and 3). NIBP measurements were compared with IBP; systolic (SAPinvasive), mean (MAPinvasive), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAPinvasive) during normotension, hypertension, and hypotension. Hypotension was induced with isoflurane (3.8 ± 1.2%) and hypertension with norepinephrine (3 ± 0.5 µg/kg/min). Data analysis included Bland-Altman analyses and 3-way ANOVA. Results were reported as mean bias (95% CI).


NIBP-O monitor reported 29% errors, and experienced more failures with hypertension, cuff placement on PEC, and using a size 1 cuff. Across states, an agreement between NIBP-D and MAPinvasive with cuff 2 on PEL (−3 mmHg [−8, 1]), and NIBP-D and SAPinvasive with cuff 3 on PEC (2 mmHg [−5, 9 mmHg]) was achieved. NIBP-D over-estimated SAPinvasive and MAPinvasive during hypertension in both limbs with cuffs 1 and 2. Except during hypotension, NIBP-O underestimated MAPinvasive and DAPinvasive using a size 2 cuff on PEL.


In anesthetized bats, NIBP-O is unreliable for estimating IBP. NIBP-D shows acceptable agreement with MAPinvasive with cuff size 2 on PEL, and with SAPinvasive with cuff size 3 on PEC across a wide range of IBP values.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate a human radioimmunoassay (RIA) and equine and high-range porcine (hrp) species-specific ELISAs for the measurement of high serum insulin concentrations in ponies.

Samples—Serum samples from 12 healthy nonobese ponies (7 clinically normal and 5 laminitis prone; 13 to 26 years of age; 11 mares and 1 gelding) before and after glucose, insulin, and dexamethasone administration.

Procedures—Intra-and interassay repeatability, freeze-thaw stability, dilutional parallelism, and assay agreement were assessed.

Results—Assay detection limits were as follows: RIA, < 389 μU/mL; equine ELISA, < 175 μU/mL; and hrp ELISA, 293 to 8,775 μU/mL. Mean ± SD intra- and interassay repeatability were respectively as follows: RIA, 6.5 ± 5.1 % and 74 ± 3.4%; equine ELISA, 10.6 ± 11.0% and 9.0 ± 4.6%; and hrp ELISA, 19.9 ± 172% and 173 ± 16.6%. Freezing and thawing affected measured concentrations. Dilutional parallelism in the RIA was only evident when insulin-depleted equine serum was used as a diluent (percentage recovery, 95.7 ± 274%); in the ELISAs, dilutional parallelism was observed when a zero calibrator was used. Agreement between RIA and equine ELISA results was good for samples containing concentrations < 175 μU of insulin/mL (bias, −18.5 ± 25.5 μU/mL; higher in RIA). At higher concentrations, assay agreement was poor between RIA and equine ELISA results (bias, −185.3 ± 98.7 μU/mL) and between RIA and hrp ELISA results (bias, 25.3 ± 183.0 μU/mL).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Agreement among results of the 3 assays was variable, and dilutional parallelism was only evident with the RIA when insulin-depleted equine serum was tested. Caution is recommended when evaluating high insulin concentrations measured with the RIA or ELISAs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine efficacy of propofol as an immersion agent to induce general anesthesia in koi (Cyprinus carpio).

Design—Prospective, crossover study.

Animals—10 adult koi (mean ± SD weight, 325 ± 81 g).

Procedures—Koi were exposed to each of 4 concentrations of propofol (1, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L) with a 1-week washout period between trials. In a subsequent trial, koi were anesthetized with propofol (5 mg/L) and anesthesia was maintained with propofol (3 mg/L) for 20 minutes. Response to a noxious stimulus was assessed by means of needle insertion into an epaxial muscle.

Results—At a propofol concentration of 1 mg/L, koi were sedated but never anesthetized. At propofol concentrations of 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L, mean ± SD anesthetic induction times were 13.4 ± 3.3, 3.8 ± 1.1, and 2.3 ± 0.9 minutes, respectively; mean recovery times were 12.9 ± 8.3, 11.0 ± 6.3, and 18.1 ± 13.0 minutes; mean heart rates were 57 ± 25, 30 ± 14, and 22 ± 14 beats/min; mean opercular rates were 58 ± 18, 68 ± 15, and 48 ± 22 beats/min; and 1 of 10, 2 of 10, and 0 of 10 fish responded to needle insertion. All fish recovered satisfactorily. Following 20 minutes of anesthesia, 2 fish had recovery times > 4 hours and 1 fish died.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Immersion in propofol at concentrations ≥ 2.5 mg/L induced general anesthesia in koi. Maintenance of anesthesia with propofol for 20 minutes was associated with prolonged recovery times in 2 of 9 and death in 1 of 9 koi.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To evaluate quality of recovery from general anesthesia in horses after induction with propofol and ketamine versus midazolam and ketamine.

DESIGN Prospective randomized crossover study.

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES Horses were premedicated with xylazine (1.0 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], IV), and general anesthesia was induced with midazolam (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IV) or propofol (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb], IV), followed by ketamine (3.0 mg/kg [1.36 mg/lb], IV). Horses were endotracheally intubated, and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. After 60 minutes, horses were given romifidine (0.02 mg/kg [0.009 mg/lb], IV) and allowed to recover unassisted. Times to first movement, sternal recumbency, and standing and the number of attempts to stand were recorded. Plasma concentrations of propofol or midazolam were measured following induction and immediately before recovery. Recovery quality was scored by 3 graders with a recovery rubric and a visual analog scale.

RESULTS Number of attempts to stand was significantly lower when horses received propofol (median, 2; range, 1 to 3) than when they received midazolam (median, 7.5; range, 3 to 16). For both the recovery rubric and visual analog scale, recovery quality was significantly better when horses received propofol than when they received midazolam. Plasma drug concentration at recovery, as a percentage of the concentration at induction, was significantly lower when horses received propofol than when they received midazolam.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that for horses undergoing short (ie, 60 minutes) periods of general anesthesia, recovery quality may be better following induction with propofol and ketamine, compared with midazolam and ketamine.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether repeated exposure to clinically relevant concentrations of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) would alter retinal function or induce histologically detectable retinal lesions in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Design—Prospective, controlled, experimental study.

Animals—18 healthy koi carp.

Procedures—2 fish were euthanized at the start of the study, and eyes were submitted for histologic evaluation as untreated controls. Anesthesia was induced in the remaining fish with 200 mg of MS-222/L and maintained with concentrations of 125 to 150 mg/L for a total exposure time of 20 minutes daily on 1 to 13 consecutive days. On days 1, 7, and 13, electroretinography of both eyes was performed in all fish remaining in the study, and 2 fish were euthanized immediately after each procedure for histologic evaluation of the eyes. Median b-wave amplitudes were compared among study days for right eyes and for left eyes via 1-way repeated-measures ANOVA with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons.

Results—Median b-wave amplitudes on days 1, 7, and 13 were 17.7, 20.9, and 17.6 μV, respectively, for right eyes and 15.1, 16.9, and 14.3 μV, respectively, for left eyes. No significant differences in b-wave amplitudes were detected among study days. No histopathologic abnormalities were identified in the retinas of any fish treated with MS-222 or in control fish.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Short-term exposure of koi carp to clinically relevant concentrations of MS-222 daily for up to 13 days was not associated with changes in retinal structure or function as measured in this study.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association