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To determine posttransfusion viability (PTV) of canine RBC stored for 35 days in an additive solution, using in vitro biotinylation and technetium-99m and chromium-51 (99mTc/51Cr) labeling techniques.

Sample Population

6 random source, adult dogs.


RBC from dogs were labeled with N-hydroxysuccinimide biotin (NHS-biotin) or 99mTc/51Cr in a crossover design. One unit (450 ml) of whole blood was collected from each dog, processed into packed RBC, and stored for 35 days in an additive solution. The process was repeated at a later date, so that each dog had 2 units stored under similar conditions. Stored autologous RBC were then labeled with either NHS-biotin or 51Cr and reinfused. When 51Cr was used, labeled cells were infused simultaneously with freshly drawn cells labeled with 99mTc. Posttransfusion viability of labeled cells was determined by dividing counts per minute (99mTc/51Cr) or percentage of cells (NHS-biotin) labeled at 24 hours by counts per minute or percentage of cells labeled after infusion.


Mean PTV of packed RBC stored for 35 days in an additive system was 80% when determined by biotinylation, 83% as determined by 99mTc/51Cr, and 81% as determined by 51Cr alone.


In vitro biotinylation provides an acceptable, nonradioisotopic means of determining PTV of stored canine packed RBC.

Clinical Relevance

NHS-biotin can be used to determine maximal storage time of canine RBC prepared for transfusion purposes. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:397–400)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate whether markers of platelet activation, including P-selectin expression, phosphatidylserine exposure, platelet-leukocyte aggregates, and microparticle formation, could be measured in nonstimulated and stimulated canine blood samples and develop a standardized protocol for detection of activated platelet markers in canine blood.

Sample population—Blood samples from 10 dogs.

Procedure—Platelet activation was determined by flow cytometric measurement of platelets with P-selectin expression, platelet-leukocyte aggregates, platelet microparticles, and platelets with phosphatidylserine exposure. Changes in specific markers of platelet activation in nonstimulated versus stimulated samples were assessed by use of varying concentrations of 2 platelet agonists, platelet-activating factor (PAF) and adenosine diphosphate. Flow cytometry was used to detect platelet CD61 (glycoprotein IIIa), CD62P (P-selectin), and the leukocyte marker CD45. Annexin V was used to identify exposed phosphatidylserine.

Results—A significant difference was detected in the percentages of platelets with P-selectin, plateletleukocyte aggregates, microparticles, and platelets with annexin V exposure (phosphatidylserine) in samples stimulated with 10nM PAF versus the nonstimulated samples, with platelet-leukocyte aggregates having the greatest difference.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Platelet activation is essential for thrombus formation and hemostasis and may be potentially useful for evaluation of dogs with suspected thromboembolic disease. Prior to development of a thrombotic state, a prothrombotic state may exist in which only a small number of platelets is activated. Identification of a prothrombotic state by use of activated platelets may help direct medical intervention to prevent a thromboembolic episode.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research