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- Author or Editor: Juliana R. Peiró x
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Objective—To identify differentially expressed genes in pulmonary tissues of horses affected with summer pasture-associated obstructive pulmonary disease (SPAOPD), which is a form of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), compared with those of unaffected horses.
Animals—6 horses with SPAOPD-RAO and 6 unaffected (healthy) horses.
Procedures—Horses were assigned to 2 groups on the basis of medical history, clinical score, and transpleural pressure. Total RNA from each of the 5 lung lobes of each of the 6 SPAOPD-RAO–affected horses was extracted and pooled. Similarly, total RNA from unaffected horses was pooled. Differential display (DD) PCR assay was performed, and differentially expressed bands were purified and cloned into a plasmid vector. Plasmids were extracted from recombinant colonies, and purified DNA was sequenced. Genes of interest for RAO pathogenesis were identified. Real-time PCR assay was performed to confirm findings for the DD PCR assay.
Results—18 differentially expressed genes (17 upregulated and 1 downregulated) were identified. Three genes of particular interest were found to be altered (2 upregulated and 1 downregulated) in horses with SPAOPD-RAO by use of real-time PCR assay, and these findings matched the differential expression found by use of the DD PCR assay.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—SPAOPD-RAO in horses is a multifactorial, complex disease involving several genes. Upregulated genes, particularly β2-microglobulin, and the downregulated secretoglobin gene can serve as marker genes that may help to identify SPAOPD-RAO at an early age.
Objective—To compare results reported for blood gas partial pressures, electrolyte concentrations, and Hct in venous blood samples collected from cattle, horses, and sheep and analyzed by use of a portable clinical analyzer (PCA) and reference analyzer (RA).
Animals—Clinically normal animals (24 cattle, 22 horses, and 22 sheep).
Procedures—pH; Pco 2; Po 2; total carbon dioxide concentration; oxygen saturation; base excess; concentrations of HCO3 −, Na+, K+, and ionized calcium; Hct; and hemoglobin concentration were determined with a PCA. Results were compared with those obtained for the same blood sample with an RA. Bias (mean difference) and variability (95% confidence interval) were determined for all data reported. Data were also subjected to analyses by Deming regression and Pearson correlation.
Results—Analysis of Bland-Altman plots revealed good agreement between results obtained with the PCA and those obtained with the RA for pH and total carbon dioxide concentration in cattle, K+ concentration in horses and sheep, and base excess in horses. Except for Na+ concentration and Hct in horses and sheep, correlation was good or excellent for most variables reported.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data from blood gas and electrolyte analyses obtained by use of the PCA can be used to evaluate the health status of cattle, horses, and sheep. Furthermore, the handheld PCA device may have a great advantage over the RA device as a result of the ability to analyze blood samples on farms that may be located far from urban centers.
Objective—To establish reference intervals for cytologic and biochemical variables in peritoneal fluid, whole blood, and plasma in calves with congenital umbilical hernias (CUHs) before and after herniorrhaphy and to assess whether those variables in calves with CUHs were altered, compared with findings in clinically normal calves.
Animals—20 Holstein calves with or without a CUH.
Procedures—10 calves with CUHs underwent herniorrhaphy. Blood and peritoneal fluid samples from all 20 calves were collected for cytologic and biochemical analyses on days 0 (before surgery), 1, 3, 5, 7, and 15. Data from the 2 groups were compared.
Results—Reference intervals for the variables of interest were established for each group. Before surgery, calves with CUHs had significantly greater plasma total protein concentration and creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase activities and peritoneal fluid specific gravity values, compared with values for calves without CUHs. At various time points after surgery, peritoneal fluid total protein concentration; fibrinogen concentration; nucleated cell, polymorphonuclear cell, and lymphocyte counts; specific gravity; and lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and CK activities in calves with CUHs were significantly different from values in calves without CUHs. Some plasma and blood variables (eg, total protein concentration, neutrophil count, and CK activity) were significantly different between the 2 groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Values of certain cytologic and biochemical variables in peritoneal fluid, blood, and plasma were different between calves with and without CUHs. Thus, determination of reference intervals for these variables is important for interpreting diagnostic test results in calves with CUHs.