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  • Author or Editor: Julia F. Ridpath x
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Objective—To inoculate white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during the sixth or seventh week of gestation with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and observe for signs of reproductive tract disease during a 182-day period.

Animals—10 pregnant white-tailed deer (8 seronegative and 2 seropositive [control deer] for BVDV).

Procedures—Deer were inoculated with 1 of 2 deer-derived BVDV strains (RO3-20663 or RO3-24272). Serum anti-BVDV antibody titers were determined prior to and 21 or 35 days after inoculation. Virus isolation (VI) procedures were performed on tissues from fetuses and does that died and on blood samples collected from live fawns. Ear notch specimens obtained from live fawns were assessed by use of BVDV antigen-capture ELISA (ACE).

Results—Both RO3-20663–inoculated seropositive deer gave birth to apparently normal fawns. Among the RO3-24272–inoculated seronegative deer, 1 died, and 1 aborted and 1 resorbed their fetuses; among the RO3-20663–inoculated seronegative deer, 3 died, 1 aborted its fetus, and 1 gave birth to 2 fawns that were likely persistently infected. On the basis of VI and ACE results, those 2 fawns were positive for BVDV; both had no detectable neutralizing anti-BVDV antibodies in serum.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reproductive tract disease that developed in pregnant white-tailed deer following BVDV inoculation was similar to that which develops in BVDV-exposed cattle. Methods developed for BVDV detection in cattle (VI, immunohistochemical evaluations, and ACE) can be applied in assessments of white-tailed deer. Fawns from does that had serum anti-BVDV antibodies prior to inoculation were protected against BVDV infection in utero.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare acute infection of cattle exposed to a high-virulence (HV) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), low-virulence (LV) BVDV, or HoBi-like virus.

Animals—24 Holstein bull calves.

Procedures—Colostrum-deprived 2- to 4-week-old calves, free of BVDV antigen and antibodies, were allocated into 4 groups (6 calves/group). Calves in 3 groups were exposed to an LV BVDV strain (BVDV2-RS886), an HV BVDV strain (BVDV2–1373), or a HoBi-like virus (D32/00 HoBi), whereas calves in the fourth group were not exposed to a virus but were cohoused with calves exposed to the HoBi-like virus. Circulating WBCs, platelets, rectal temperature, and presence of virus in the blood were monitored.

Results—Infection of calves with any of the 3 viruses resulted in reduced numbers of circulating WBCs. Pyrexia was detected in all calves exposed to HV BVDV or LV BVDV but in only 3 of 6 calves exposed to the HoBi-like virus. Diarrhea was observed in 0 of 6 calves exposed to the HoBi-like virus, 2 of 6 calves exposed to the LV BVDV, and 6 of 6 calves exposed to the HV BVDV. The HoBi-like virus was transmitted from acutely infected calves to naïve cohorts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestivirus isolated from water buffalo and cattle in South America, Southeast Asia, and Europe but not from cattle in the United States. Understanding the clinical course of disease caused by HoBi-like pestiviruses will be important for the design of surveillance programs for the United States.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine efficacy of a modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine containing bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1a and 2a against fetal infection in heifers exposed to cattle persistently infected (PI) with BVDV subtype 1 b.

Animals—50 heifers and their fetuses.

Procedures—Susceptible heifers received a placebo vaccine administered IM or a vaccine containing MLV strains of BVDV1a and BVDV2a administered IM or SC. On day 124 (64 to 89 days of gestation), 50 pregnant heifers (20 vaccinated SC, 20 vaccinated IM, and 10 control heifers) were challenge exposed to 8 PI cattle. On days 207 to 209, fetuses were recovered from heifers and used for testing.

Results—2 control heifers aborted following challenge exposure; both fetuses were unavailable for testing. Eleven fetuses (8 control heifers and 1 IM and 2 SC vaccinates) were positive for BVDV via virus isolation (VI) and for BVDV antigen via immunohistochemical analysis in multiple tissues. Two additional fetuses from IM vaccinates were considered exposed to BVDV (one was seropositive for BVDV and the second was positive via VI in fetal tissues). A third fetus in the SC vaccinates was positive for BVDV via VI from serum alone. Vaccination against BVDV provided fetal protection in IM vaccinated (17/20) and SC vaccinated (17/20) heifers, but all control heifers (10/10) were considered infected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—1 dose of a BVDV1a and 2a MLV vaccine administered SC or IM prior to breeding helped protect against fetal infection in pregnant heifers exposed to cattle PI with BVDV1b.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research