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OBJECTIVE To compare the complication rates and outcomes in cats with ureteral obstruction treated by placement of double-pigtail ureteral stents or ureteral bypass (UB) devices.

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS Cats with unilateral or bilateral ureterolithiasis that received double-pigtail ureteral stents (30 stents in 27 cats; stent group) or UB devices (30 devices in 23 cats; UB group).

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to collect data on signalment, clinical signs, serum biochemical data, surgical procedure, duration of hospitalization, complications, and follow-up (≥ 6 months after placement) information. Outcomes were compared between device types.

RESULTS Median durations of surgery and hospitalization were significantly longer in the stent versus UB group. Perioperative mortality rate was 18% (5/27) in the stent group and 13% (3/23) in the UB group. Median survival time was shorter in the stent versus UB group. Stent placement was associated with a greater risk of lower urinary tract–related signs, such as hematuria (52% [14/27]) and pollakiuria or stranguria (48% [13/27]). The risk of device occlusion was also greater in the stent (26% [7/27]) versus UB (4% [1/23]) group. The percentage of cats requiring additional procedures to treat complications was greater in the stent (44%; complications included uroabdomen, stent occlusion, and refractory cystitis) versus UB (9%; complications included UB occlusion and urethral obstruction) group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although the benefits of stent placement in the treatment of ureteral obstruction in cats have been established, results suggested that cats treated with UB devices had a lower risk of complications and a longer survival time than those treated with double-pigtail ureteral stents.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To characterize and investigate potential associations between causes of pleural effusion and various clinical factors in a large cohort of affected cats.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 380 client-owned cats with a diagnosis of pleural effusion from January 1, 2009, through July 14, 2014, for which the cause of pleural effusion had been fully investigated.

PROCEDURES Electronic medical records were reviewed and data collected regarding cat characteristics, clinical signs, cause of pleural effusion, treatment, and survival status at discharge from the hospital. Variables were examined for associations with causes of pleural effusion.

RESULTS 87 (22.9%) cats died or were euthanized before discharge from the hospital. Congestive heart failure (CHF) was the most common cause (155 [40.8%]) of pleural effusion, followed by neoplasia (98 [25.8%]). Other causes included pyothorax, idiopathic chylothorax, trauma, feline infectious peritonitis, and nontraumatic diaphragmatic hernia. Cats with trauma or feline infectious peritonitis were significantly younger than those with CHF or neoplasia. Cats with lymphoma were significantly younger than those with carcinoma. Cats with CHF had a significantly lower rectal temperature at hospital admission (mean ± SD, 36.9 ± 1.2°C [98.4 ± 2.2°F]) than did cats with pleural effusion from other causes (37.9 ± 1.2°C [100.2 ± 2.2°F]).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cats with pleural effusion in this study had a poor prognosis; CHF and neoplasia were common causes. Age and hypothermia may be helpful to raise the index of suspicion for certain underlying causes of pleural effusion in cats.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with chronic diarrhea, to identify cutoff values for fecal calprotectin concentrations for use in differentiating dogs with chronic diarrhea and a canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI) < 12 from dogs with chronic diarrhea and a CCECAI ≥ 12, and to evaluate the association between histologic evidence of intestinal mucosal changes and fecal calprotectin concentrations in dogs with chronic diarrhea.

Sample—Fecal samples from 96 adult dogs (27 dogs with chronic diarrhea and 69 healthy control dogs).

Procedures—Severity of clinical signs was evaluated on the basis of the CCECAI scoring system. Endoscopy was performed in all dogs with chronic diarrhea, and mucosal biopsy specimens were evaluated histologically. Fecal calprotectin concentration was quantified via radioimmunoassay.

Results—Fecal calprotectin concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with chronic diarrhea than in healthy control dogs. Fecal calprotectin concentrations were also significantly higher in dogs with a CCECAI ≥ 12, compared with concentrations for dogs with a CCECAI between 4 and 11. Fecal calprotectin concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with chronic diarrhea associated with histologic lesions, compared with concentrations in control dogs, and were significantly correlated with the severity of histologic intestinal lesions. Among dogs with chronic diarrhea, the best cutoff fecal calprotectin concentration for predicting a CCECAI ≥ 12 was 48.9 μg/g (sensitivity, 53.3%; specificity, 91.7%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fecal calprotectin may be a useful biomarker in dogs with chronic diarrhea, especially dogs with histologic lesions.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research