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Objective—To compare financial returns between pinhooked yearling horses (ie, bought and trained for approximately 5 months with the goal of selling the horse at "2-year-olds in training" sales) that had mild or severe training failure and horses that had planned versus nonplanned training failure.
Animals—40 Thoroughbred pinhooked yearling horses.
Procedure—During the period from September 1998 through and April 1999, 20 horses had mild training failure (1 to 11 days lost), and 20 horses had severe training failure (13 to 108 days lost). Horses were assigned to these 2 groups on the basis of frequency distribution (median) of days lost during training. Horses were also categorized on the basis of type of training failure (planned vs nonplanned training failure). The outcome of primary interest was financial return. Median financial returns were compared among groups by use of the Mann-Whitney U test.
Results—Median financial returns for horses that had severe training failure ($1,000) were significantly different, compared with horses that had mild training failure ($24,000). Analysis of results also indicated that median returns were significantly different among horses that had planned training failure (−$2,000; eg, horses with radiographic abnormalities detected during routine prepurchase examinations that required surgical treatment, resulting in days lost during training), compared with horses that did not ($10,000).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Training failure has an economic impact on revenues in pinhooked yearling horses. Lameness, planned training failure, respiratory disease, and ringworm were common and important causes of training failure. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1418–1422)
Objective—To determine risk factors associated with identification of an umbilical hernia during the first 2 months after birth in Holstein heifers.
Animals—322 Holstein heifers born in a single herd (45 with an umbilical hernia and 277 without).
Procedure—Risk factors that were examined included sire, whether the dam had a history of umbilical hernia, milk yield, duration of gestation, whether the dam had a history of dystocia, whether the heifer had a twin, birth weight, total serum protein concentration, and whether the heifer had an umbilical infection. Logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors.
Results—Heifers born to sires with ≥ 3 progeny with an umbilical hernia were 2.31 times as likely to develop an umbilical hernia as were heifers born to sires with ≤ 2 progeny with an umbilical hernia. Heifers with umbilical infection were 5.65 times as likely to develop an umbilical hernia as were heifers without umbilical infection.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sire and umbilical infection were associated with risk of an umbilical hernia during the first 2 months of life in Holstein heifers. Attributable proportion analysis indicated that the frequency of umbilical hernias in Holstein heifers with umbilical infection would have been reduced by 82% if umbilical infection had been prevented. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1487–1490)
Objective—To evaluate efficacy of topical treatment with oxytetracycline solution among dairy cows with papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) lesions on the interdigital cleft, heels, or dewclaw.
Animals—70 dairy cows from a single herd.
Procedure—On the basis of anatomic location of PDD lesions, cows were allocated into 1 of 3 groups (interdigital cleft [n = 14], heels , or dewclaw ) and treated topically with oxytetracycline solution. Cows were examined 14 and 30 days after initial treatment. During each examination, pain and lesion size scores were recorded.
Results—On the basis of pain and lesion size scores, oxytetracycline appeared significantly less effective among cows with lesions on the interdigital cleft than for cows with lesions on the heels or the dewclaw. Number of cows with signs of pain or visible lesions after treatment was significantly higher for cows with lesions on the interdigital cleft than for cows with lesions on heels or the dewclaw.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anatomic location of PDD lesions has an effect on the efficacy of topical treatment with oxytetracycline solution in dairy cows affected with PDD. Cows with lesions on the interdigital cleft were less likely to respond to treatment, compared with cows with lesions on the heels or the dewclaw. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1288–1290)
Objective—To compare 3 types of noxious stimuli applied to various anatomic areas of anesthetized dogs and rabbits for determination of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC).
Animals—10 dogs and 10 rabbits.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane and halothane in a randomized order. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane. The MAC was determined by skin incision on the lateral aspect of the chest; clamping of the tail, paw of the forelimb, and paw of the hind limb; and application of electrical current to the oral mucosa (dogs only), forelimb, and hind limb. The MAC was the end-tidal concentration midway between the value permitting and preventing purposeful movement in response to noxious stimuli.
Results—In dogs, mean ± SEM MAC for isoflurane was 1.27 ± 0.05% for clamping stimuli, 1.36 ± 0.04% for oral electrical stimulation, 1.35 ± 0.04% for electrical stimulation to the limbs, and 1.01 ± 0.07% for surgical incision. The MAC for halothane was 0.97 ± 0.03% for tail clamping, 0.96 ± 0.03% for clamping of the limbs, 1.04 ± 0.03% for electrical stimulation, and 0.75 ± 0.06% for surgical incision. In rabbits, MAC for isoflurane was 2.08 ± 0.02% for clamping stimuli, 2.04 ± 0.02% for electrical stimulation, and 0.90 ± 0.02% for surgical incision. The MAC for surgical incision was significantly lower than values for the other methods in both species.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of electrical current and clamping techniques resulted in similar MAC values. Surgical incision underestimated MAC values in dogs and rabbits. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:957–962)
Objective—To estimate prevalence of and identify factors associated with anhidrosis in horses in Florida.
Design—Cross-sectional study and case-control study.
Animals—4,620 horses on 500 farms.
Procedures—A questionnaire was structured and mailed to farm owners or managers to obtain information related to diagnosis of anhidrosis in horses and exposure factors associated with this condition. The frequency of investigated farm- and animal-level factors was compared between farms and horses affected and not affected with anhidrosis, respectively.
Results—The prevalence of anhidrosis was 11% at the farm level and 2% at the animal level. The odds of anhidrosis were 2.13 and 4.40 times as high in farms located in central and southern Florida, respectively, compared with odds for farms in northern Florida. The odds of anhidrosis were 5.26 and 15.40 times as high in show and riding instruction operations, respectively, compared with odds for ranch operations. At the animal level, breed (Thoroughbreds and warmblood horses), foaling place (western or midwestern region of the United States), and family history of anhidrosis were significantly associated with anhidrosis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provides new information on the prevalence of and factors for anhidrosis in horses in Florida. Horses with a family history of anhidrosis should be examined by a veterinarian for diagnosis of this condition before they are exposed to exercise in a hot and humid climate.
Objective—To examine the relationship between lameness and milk yield in dairy cows.
Animals—531 dairy cows.
Procedure—Cows affected with lameness were classified into 1 of 3 groups on the basis of type of diseases or lesions observed, including interdigital phlegmon (foot rot), papillomatous digital dermatitis (foot warts), or claw lesions. Cows not affected with lameness were classified as healthy. From Dairy Herd Improvement Association records, 305-day mature equivalent milk yield data were collected at the end of lactation or when the cow left the herd. Milk yield was compared between cows affected with lameness and healthy cows.
Results—167 (31%) cows were affected with lameness during lactation. Lame cows had claw lesions (60%), papillomatous digital dermatitis (31%), or interdigital phlegmon (9%). Milk yield in lame cows with interdigital phlegmon (mean, 17,122 lb) was significantly less, compared with healthy cows (19,007 lb).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this herd, interdigital phlegmon was associated with a 10% decrease in milk production. Lame cows with claw lesions or papillomatous digital dermatitis produced less milk than healthy cows, but the difference was not significant. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:640–644)
Objective—To determine association between exposure to Neospora caninum and milk production in dairy cows.
Design—Prospective observational study.
Animals—565 Holstein cows.
Procedure—Cows were classified as seropositive or seronegative to N caninum within 7 days after calving by use of a kinetic ELISA. Milk production was compared between seropositive and seronegative cows.
Results—On the basis of 305-day mature equivalent milk production data, seropositive cows produced less milk (2.8 lb/cow per day) than did seronegative cows. In addition, analysis of results throughout the first 300 days of lactation revealed that after adjusting for effects of lactation number, calving season, clinical mastitis, and lameness, milk weight of seropositive cows was 2.5 lb/cow per day less than that of seronegative cows.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure to N caninum was associated with a 3 to 4% decrease in milk production. A decrease in milk production of 800 lb/cow for a typical 305-day lactation represents a loss of $128/cow. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 219:632–635)
Objective—To examine the relationship between exposure to Neospora caninum and abortion in dairy cows during their first, second, third, and fourth or later lactations and to establish the main mode of transmission in female calves from birth until their first pregnancy was terminated by abortion or parturition.
Design—Prospective observational study.
Animals—460 Holstein cows and 79 female calves.
Procedure—Cows were classified as seropositive or seronegative to N caninum within 7 days after calving; incidence of abortion was compared between groups during different lactations. Blood samples were collected from female calves before ingestion of colostrum and every 6 months until their first pregnancy was terminated by abortion or parturition; number of seropositive calves was compared between seropositive and seronegative dams.
Results—During the first pregnancy of their second lactation, risk of abortion for seropositive cows was 2.8 times that of seronegative cows. Among 10 calves born to seropositive cows, 4 were classified as seropositive at birth and thereafter. Among 69 calves born to seronegative cows, all were classified as seronegative at birth; 67 calves remained seronegative thereafter.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure to N caninum alone was not significantly associated with abortion in cows during the first, third, and fourth or later lactations. Seropositive cows that have aborted previously may have subsequent abortions attributable to N caninum. Congenital infection was the main mode of N caninum transmission in a cohort of female calves. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1742–1746)
Objective—To examine the relationship between lameness and the duration of the interval from calving to subsequent conception in lactating dairy cows.
Animals—837 dairy cows.
Procedure—Cows affected with lameness were classified into 1 of 4 groups on the basis of types of disease or lesions observed, including foot rot, papillomatous digital dermatitis, claw lesions, or multiple lesions. Cows not affected with lameness were classified as healthy. Time from calving to conception was compared between lame cows and healthy cows.
Results—254 (30%) cows were affected with lameness during lactation. Most lame cows (59%) had claw lesions. Lame cows with claw lesions were 0.52 times as likely to conceive as healthy cows. Median time to conception was 40 days longer in lame cows with claw lesions, compared with healthy cows. Number of breedings per conception for lame cows with claw lesions was significantly higher than that for healthy cows.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Claw lesions were the most important cause of lameness, impairing reproductive performance in dairy cows, as indicated by a higher incidence of affected cows and a greater time from calving to conception and a higher number of breedings required per conception, comp ared with healthy cows. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 218:1611–1614)
Objective—To identify race-start characteristics associated with catastrophic musculoskeletal (MS) injury in Thoroughbred racehorses at 2 racetracks in Florida during 1995 through 1998.
Design—Matched case-control study.
Animals—97 Thoroughbreds (case horses) that incurred a catastrophic MS injury during racing and 388 Thoroughbreds (control horses) randomly selected from noninjured participants and matched on the basis of racetrack and year.
Procedure—Incidence of MS injury was calculated for all race meets at 2 racetracks in Florida from 1995 through 1998. Race-start characteristics were compared among case and control horses, using conditional logistic regression.
Results—Overall incidence of MS injury was 1.2/1,000 race starts (97/79,416 starts). Incidence of injury was significantly higher for turf races (2.3/1,000 starts) than for dirt races (0.9/1,000 starts). Sex, number of days since last race, and racing surface were associated with risk of injury; geldings, ≥ 33 days since the last race, and turf racing surface were associated with a higher risk of injury.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Incidence of injury among Thoroughbreds in Florida was associated with sex, number of days since last race, and racing surface. Days since last race may have been an indicator of previous health and lameness problems. Racing surface may have been a risk factor for MS injury because turf races tended to be more competitive than dirt races. Horses running in turf races were more likely to participate in races with a large field, handicap races, long races, and races with high purses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:83–86)