Objective—To compare responses of equine digital arteries (EDAs) and veins (EDVs) to human-acalcitonin gene-related peptide (hαCGRP), evaluate effect of the endothelium, and characterize receptors and sources of endogenous CGRP.
Sample—Palmar digital vessels (5 to 9/experiment) from healthy adult horses killed at an abattoir.
Procedures—Vessel rings were mounted under tension in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution at 30°C, with relaxation responses examined in vessels preconstricted with a thromboxane-mimetic (3 × 10−8M). Responses of endothelium-intact (+e) and -denuded (−e) EDAs and EDVs to hαCGRP C10−10 to 3 × 10−7M) were compared. Following incubation with an hαCGRP receptor antagonist (hαCGRP8–37; 1μM), responses of EDA(−e) and EDV(−e) to hαCGRP (10−7M) were obtained. Responses of endothelium-intact and -denuded arteries and veins to hαCGRP (3 × 10−7M) or capsaicin (10−5M) were evaluated as well as responses of endothelium-intact and -denuded EDA and EDV to hαCGRP (10−10 to 10−6M) after incubation with endothelin-1 (ET-1; 10−12M).
Results—hαCGRP resulted in nonendothelium, concentration-dependent relaxation in EDAs and EDVs, with greater responses in EDAs. Treatment with hαCGRP8–37 had minimal effect on responses to hαCGRP in either vessel type. Capsaicin induced relaxation in both vessel types. There were no differences between responses to hαCGRP for vessels pretreated with ET-1 or vehicle.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both hαCGRP and capsaicin induced digital vasodilation unaffected by a functional endothelium. This suggested that endogenous CGRP likely emanates from sensory-motor nerves and may contribute to digital vasodilation.
Objective—To determine the metabolic phenotype of a group of laminitis-prone ponies when at pasture in summer, compared with when at pasture in winter.
Animals—40 ponies of various breeds predisposed to recurrent pasture-associated laminitis and 40 unaffected control ponies.
Procedures—Body condition score and size of the crest of the neck were assessed, blood samples obtained, and blood pressure measured by use of an indirect oscillometric technique, while ponies were kept on winter pasture (last week of November or beginning of December) and again on summer pasture (June). Serum insulin concentration and plasma glucose, triglyceride, uric acid, and ACTH concentrations were measured. Insulin sensitivity was calculated with proxies derived from basal serum insulin and plasma glucose concentrations.
Results—No significant differences were apparent between ponies predisposed to laminitis and control ponies during winter. However, in June, laminitis-prone ponies had increased serum insulin concentration and plasma triglyceride and uric acid concentrations, compared with control ponies. Also, laminitis-prone ponies were relatively insulin resistant, compared with control ponies. Mean blood pressure was significantly higher during summer in laminitis-prone ponies (median [interquartile range], 89.6 mm Hg [78.3 to 96.9 mm Hg]), compared with control ponies (76.8 mm Hg [69.4 to 85.2 mm Hg]).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Summer pastures appear to induce metabolic responses in some ponies, leading to expression of the prelaminitic phenotype, which includes hypertension as well as insulin resistance. Signs of this metabolic syndrome may not be apparent in affected ponies during periods of grazing winter pasture. Understanding this syndrome may enable improved countermeasures to be devised to prevent laminitis.
Objective—To develop a formula for correcting slope-intercept plasma iohexol clearance in cats and to compare clearance of total iohexol (TIox), endo-iohexol (EnIox), and exo-iohexol (ExIox).
Animals—20 client-owned, healthy adult and geriatric cats.
Procedures—Plasma clearance of TIox was determined via multisample and slope-intercept methods. A multisample method was used to determine clearance for EnIox and ExIox. A second-order polynomial correction factor was derived by performing regression analysis of the multisample data with the slope-intercept data and forcing the regression line though the origin. Clearance corrected by use of the derived formula was compared with clearance corrected by use of Brochner-Mortensen human and Heiene canine formulae. Statistical testing was applied, and Bland-Altman plots were created to assess the degree of agreement between TIox, EnIox, and ExIox clearance.
Results—Mean ± SD iohexol clearance estimated via multisample and corrected slope-intercept methods was 2.16 ± 0.35 mL/min/kg and 2.14 ± 0.34 mL/min/kg, respectively. The derived feline correction formula was Clcorrected = (1.036 × Cluncorrected) – (0.062 × Cluncorrected2), in which Cl represents clearance. Results obtained by use of the 2 methods were in excellent agreement. Clearance corrected by use of the Heiene formula had a linear relationship with clearance corrected by use of the feline formula; however, the relationship of the feline formula with the Brochner-Mortensen formula was nonlinear. Agreement between TIox, EnIox, and ExIox clearance was excellent.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The derived feline correction formula applied to slope-intercept plasma iohexol clearance accurately predicted multisample clearance in cats. Use of this technique offers an important advantage by reducing stress to cats associated with repeated blood sample collection and decreasing the costs of analysis.