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OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of bacteriuria (ie, a positive microbial culture result for ≥ 1 urine sample) in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and characterize findings of subclinical bacteriuria (SBU), bacterial cystitis, or pyelonephritis in these patients.

DESIGN Retrospective, observational study.

ANIMALS 182 dogs.

PROCEDURES Medical records from January 2010 through July 2015 were reviewed to identify dogs with CKD that underwent urinalysis and urine microbial culture. Signalment, clinicopathologic data, stage of CKD according to previously published guidelines, results of urinalysis and urine culture, and abdominal ultrasonographic findings were recorded. Dogs with positive urine culture results were categorized as having SBU, bacterial cystitis, or pyelonephritis on the basis of these data. Prevalence of bacteriuria was calculated. Associations between CKD stage, presence of bacteriuria, and diagnosis category were analyzed statistically.

RESULTS 33 of 182 (18.1%) dogs (40/235 [17.0%] urine samples) had positive culture results. All dogs received antimicrobials on the basis of culture and susceptibility test findings. Most positive culture results (18/40 [45%] samples) were found for dogs with SBU, followed by dogs with pyelonephritis (16/40 [40%]) and cystitis (6/40 [15%]). Escherichia coli was the most frequently observed isolate (29/40 [73%] cultures from 25/33 dogs). The CKD stage was not associated with presence of bacteriuria or diagnosis category.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The prevalence of positive urine culture results in dogs with CKD was lower than that reported for dogs with some systemic diseases that may predispose to infection. Prospective research is needed to assess the clinical importance of SBU in dogs with CKD.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe the diagnostic utility and clinical safety of ultrasonographically guided percutaneous pyelocentesis and antegrade pyelography in cats and dogs.


Retrospective case series.


39 cats and 10 dogs with 55 affected kidneys.


Medical records were reviewed to identify cats and dogs that underwent ultrasonographically guided pyelocentesis and antegrade pyelography between June 1, 2007, and December 31, 2015. Data collected included procedure descriptions; results of diagnostic imaging, urine cytologic evaluation, and bacterial culture; and evidence of complications. Animals were assigned to the pyelocentesis group (underwent only pyelocentesis) or to the antegrade pyelography group (underwent pyelocentesis followed immediately by pyelography).


The diagnostic rate for pyelography was 94% (31/33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.4% to 98.9%). The total, minor, and major complication rates for both treatment groups combined were 25% (95% CI, 15.8% to 38.3%), 24% (95% CI, 14.4% to 36.3%), and 2% (95% CI, 0.09% to 9.6%), respectively. Performing bacterial culture of urine obtained by pyelocentesis did not provide an advantage over performing bacterial culture of urine obtained from the lower urinary tract.


Findings indicated that ultrasonographically guided pyelocentesis and antegrade pyelography were well-tolerated techniques for investigating upper urinary tract disease in cats and dogs and that pyelography had a higher diagnostic rate than previously reported; therefore, pyelography should be considered for identification of mechanical and functional ureteral patency abnormalities in cats and dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To compare dialysate sodium concentration and patient plasma sodium concentration of dogs during intermittent hemodialysis treatments.

SAMPLE 211 intermittent hemodialysis treatments performed on 40 client-owned dogs for the management of dialysis-dependent uremia.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to determine the plasma sodium concentration of each dog before and after routine hemodialysis treatments. Associations between detected changes in plasma sodium concentration and dialysate sodium concentration were evaluated by use of Spearman rank correlations and linear regression analysis.

RESULTS Significant linear correlations were found between the dialysate sodium concentration and patient sodium concentration. The starting dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient was associated with the strongest correlation to the change in patient sodium concentration at the end of the dialysis session. Modest correlations existed between the dialysate sodium concentration and postdialysis patient sodium concentration as well as between the predialysis dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient and postdialysis dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The dialysate sodium concentration was correlated with the patient sodium concentration in dogs, and the dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient could be used to further refine this association to predict the postdialysis patient sodium concentration and potentially manage dysnatremia during hemodialysis. Prospective studies should be performed to determine how these associations can be used to correct aberrations as well as to avoid unwanted alterations in patient sodium concentrations.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association