Objective—To determine whether repeated oral administration of glucose and leucine during the period immediately after intense exercise would increase the release of insulin and thereby enhance glycogen synthesis in horses.
Animals—12 Standardbred horses.
Procedures—In a crossover study design, after glycogen-depleting exercise, horses received oral boluses of glucose (1 g/kg at 0, 2, and 4 hours) and leucine (0.1 g/kg at 0 and 4 hours) or boluses of water (10 mL/kg at 0, 2, and 4 hours; control treatment). Blood samples for determination of glucose, insulin, and leucine concentrations were collected prior to and during a 6-hour period immediately after exercise. Biopsy specimens of a gluteus muscle were obtained before and immediately after exercise and at 3, 6, and 24 hours after exercise for measurement of glycogen concentration.
Results—When glucose and leucine were administered to the horses, plasma insulin concentration was significantly higher during the 6 hours immediately after exercise than it was when water was administered to the horses. Serum glucose concentration during the 4 hours immediately after exercise was significantly higher when glucose and leucine were administered than the serum glucose concentration when water was administered. Muscle glycogen concentrations did not differ between the 2 treatments during the 24 hours after exercise.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Synthesis of muscle glycogen after intense intermittent exercise was not enhanced by oral boluses of glucose and leucine after exercise despite pronounced increases in plasma insulin and serum glucose concentrations.
Objective—To determine concentrations of proglycogen (PG), macroglycogen (MG), glucose, and glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) in skeletal muscle of horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) before and after performing light submaximal exercise.
Animals—6 horses with PSSM and 4 control horses.
Procedures—Horses with PSSM completed repeated intervals of 2 minutes of walking followed by 2 minutes of trotting on a treadmill until muscle cramping developed. Four untrained control horses performed a similar exercise test for up to 20 minutes. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured before and 4 hours after exercise. Concentrations of total glycogen (Gt), PG, MG, G-6-P, free glucose, and lactate were measured in biopsy specimens of gluteal muscle obtained before and after exercise.
Results—Mean serum CK activity was 26 times higher in PSSM horses than in control horses after exercise. Before exercise, muscle glycogen concentrations were 1.5, 2.2, and 1.7 times higher for PG, MG, and Gt, respectively, in PSSM horses, compared with concentrations in control horses. No significant changes in Gt, PG, MG, G-6-P, and lactate concentrations were detected after exercise. However, free glucose concentrations in skeletal muscle increased significantly in PSSM horses after exercise.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of the results suggests that glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is augmented in horses with PSSM after light exercise. There is excessive storage of PG and MG in horses with PSSM, and high concentrations of the 2 glycogen fractions may affect functional interactions between glycogenolytic and glycogen synthetic enzymes and glycosomes.