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Objective

To assess the effect of incomplete, midsagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx (P1) on racing performance in Standardbreds.

Design

Retrospective cohort study.

Animals

49 Standardbred horses admitted to the George D. Widener Hospital for Large Animals between July 1986 and December 1992 with a definitive radiographic diagnosis of an incomplete, midsagittal fracture of P1 and a known method of treatment.

Procedure

Performance index and racing time were compared before and after diagnosis and treatment of fracture, using ANOVA that controlled for the effects of horse, gender, age, track length, and track condition.

Results

Expected racing time increased by 0.7 seconds and performance index decreased by 0.7 points, although controlling for factors known to affect racing performance had a substantial impact on these results.

Clinical Implications

Standardbreds with incomplete, midsagittal fractures of P1 have a favorable prognosis for return to racing; recovered horses will likely have slower racing times and decreased performance indices. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:82–86)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize alterations in systemic and local colonic hemodynamic variables associated with IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 in healthy anesthetized horses.

Animals—12 adult horses.

Procedure—Six horses were given ATP-MgCl2, IV, beginning at a rate of 0.1 mg of ATP/kg of body weight/min with incremental increases until a rate of 1.0 mg/kg/min was achieved. The remaining 6 horses were given an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution over the same time period. Colonic and systemic hemodynamic variables and colonic plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were determined before, during, and after infusion.

Results—Infusion of ATP-MgCl2 caused a rate-dependent decrease in systemic and colonic vascular resistance, principally via its vasodilatory effects. A rate of 0.3 mg of ATP/kg/min caused a significant decrease in systemic and colonic arterial pressure and colonic vascular resistance without a significant corresponding decrease in colonic arterial blood flow. Consistent alterations in NO concentrations of plasma obtained from colonic vasculature were not detected, despite profound vasodilatation of the colonic arterial vasculature.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results revealed that IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 may be beneficial in maintaining colonic perfusion in horses with ischemia of the gastrointestinal tract, provided a sufficient pressure gradient exists to maintain blood flow. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1240–1249)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the in vitro effects of adenosine tryphosphate (ATP) on vasomotor tone of equine colonic vasculature.

Sample Population—Arteries and veins from the left ventral colon of 14 mixed-breed horses euthanatized for reasons unrelated to cardiovascular or gastrointestinal tract disease.

Procedures—Endothelium-intact and -denuded arterial and venous rings were precontracted with 10–7 and 1.8 × 10–8 M endothelin-1, respectively. In 1 trial, endothelium-intact rings were also incubated with 10–4 M Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production. Adenosine triphosphate (10–8 to 10–3 M) was added in a noncumulative manner, and relaxation percentage versus time curves were generated. Areas under the curves (ie, percentage of relaxation time) were calculated.

Results—Relaxation response of arterial and venous rings to ATP was dose-dependent. Percentage of relaxation time in response to 10–4 and 10–3 M ATP was significantly greater, compared with that for rings not treated with ATP. Removal of endothelium attenuated but did not eliminate the relaxation response. Addition of L-NAME did not attenuate the relaxation response in arteries. At higher concentrations, the vascular response to ATP was biphasic.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ATP applied to equine colonic arterial and venous rings with and without intact endothelium induced a biphasic response characterized by transient contraction followed by slow, substantial, and sustained relaxation. This ATP-induced response is possibly mediated by a mechanism other than NO. Adenosine triphosphate may be a useful treatment to modulate colonic vasomotor tone in horses with strangulating volvulus of the ascending colon. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1928–1933)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate systemic effects of IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 subsequent to infusion of a low dose of endotoxin in horses.

Animals—12 adult horses.

Procedure—Horses were administered endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, IV, during a 30-minute period. Immediately thereafter, horses in each group were infused IV with ATP-MgCl2 or saline solution. Two weeks later, horses were administered the opposite solution (LPS or saline solution), but it was followed by the same infusion as 2 weeks previously (ie, ATP-MgCl2 or saline solution). Cardiopulmonary and clinicopathologic variables, cytokine activity, and endothelin (ET) concentrations were recorded.

Results—IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 after administration of a low dose of endotoxin failed to attenuate the cardiopulmonary, clinicopathologic, and cytokine alterations that develop secondary to endotoxin exposure. The combination of LPS and ATP-MgCl2 potentiated pulmonary hypertension, leukopenia, and neutropenia when compared with the combination of LPS and saline solution. The combination of LPS and ATP-MgCl2 resulted in thrombocytopenia. Endothelin concentration was increased in jugular venous and pulmonary arterial plasma in horses receiving LPS and ATP-MgCl2. Similar increases were not observed with LPS and saline solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of ATP-MgCl2 did not protect horses from systemic effects of experimentally induced endotoxemia. Furthermore, the use of ATP-MgCl2 during endotoxemia may worsen the cardiopulmonary and clinicopathologic status of affected horses. Because ATP and other adenine nucleotides are released from cells during shock, their potential role in the development of hemodynamic derangements, leukocyte adherence, and coagulopathies during endotoxemic episodes warrants further investigation. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65: 225–237)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine hemodynamic and metabolic effects of IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 combination and maximal safe IV infusion rate in conscious horses.

Animals

6 adult female horses.

Procedure

All horses received an IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 combination, beginning at a rate of 0.05 mg of ATP/kg of body weight/min, which was increased by 0.05 mg/kg/min increments at 10-minute intervals until a rate of 1.0 mg/kg/min was achieved. Data were collected prior to the start of the infusion, at the end of each infusion rate, and at 15-minute intervals for the next hour after discontinuation of the infusion. Measured or calculated hemodynamic variables included cardiac output, cardiac index, heart rate, stroke volume, systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures, and systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances. Arterial blood gas tensions, CBC, plasma biochemical profiles, urine volume and specific gravity, and selected clinical signs of disease also were evaluated.

Results

Intravenous infusion of ATP-MgCl2 significantly increased cardiac output, decreased systemic vascular resistance, and caused mild pulmonary hypertension. Magnitude of the hemodynamic alterations was dependent on rate of infusion. Maximal safe infusion rate for these horses was 0.3 mg/kg/min. All horses became lethargic, and their appetites diminished during the infusion; 5 horses had mild signs of abdominal discomfort. Flank sweating was observed in all horses as infusion rate increased. Urine volume and specific gravity and hematologic, biochemical, and arterial blood gas alterations were detected during and after infusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Intravenous administration of ATP-MgCl2 in healthy, conscious, adult horses caused various metabolic and hemodynamic alterations that were without appreciable detrimental effects. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1140–1147)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the efficacy of prosthetic laryngoplasty with and without bilateral ventriculocordectomy for treatment of experimentally induced left laryngeal hemiplegia (LLH).

Animals

15 adult Standardbreds.

Procedure

Horses were allotted to 3 equal groups. Sham operation (group 1), prosthetic laryngoplasty (group 2), or prosthetic laryngoplasty with bilateral ventriculocordectomy (group 3) was performed after induction of LLH. Upper airway function testing was performed prior to left recurrent laryngeal neurectomy (LRLN), 14 days after LRLN, and 60 and 180 days after surgical treatment. Measurements were obtained at rest and at treadmill speeds corresponding to 75 and 100% of maximal heart rate. Videoendoscopy was performed at rest and during exercise in all horses prior to LRLN and 60 and 180 days after surgical treatment. Upper airway endoscopy was performed immediately after LRLN to document induction of grade-IV LLH. Also, horses in group 3 were endoscopically examined at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 120 days after surgical treatment to evaluate healing of the ventriculocordectomy sites.

Results

When horses were at rest, significant differences were not apparent between groups at any period or between periods for any measured variable. LRLN induced airway obstruction in all horses during exercise. In sham-operated horses, this obstruction was unaffected by time. In contrast, 60 and 180 days after surgical treatment, inspiratory flow limitations induced by LRLN were reversed in horses of groups 2 and 3. There were no significant differences between the 2 treatment groups. Endoscopy revealed the left arytenoid cartilage abducted beyond the intermediate position, but not touching the pharyngeal wall in all horses with a laryngeal prosthesis. After surgical treatment, 4 group-2 horses had filling of both ventricles with air during exercise. There was moderate to marked swelling of the ventriculocordectomy sites immediately after surgery, and this swelling resolved by 7 days after surgery. The ventriculocordectomy sites looked best at 14 and 180 days.

Conclusions

60 and 180 days after prosthetic laryngoplasty, upper airway function returned to pre-LRLN values in horses with experimentally induced LLH exercising at 100% of maximal heart rate. Combining ventriculocordectomy with prosthetic laryngoplasty does not further improve upper airway function in these horses. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1668–1673)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research