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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of volume of IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) on amikacin concentrations in synovial and interstitial fluid of horses.

ANIMALS 8 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES Each forelimb was randomly assigned to receive IVRLP with 4 mL of amikacin sulfate solution (250 mg/mL) plus 56 mL (total volume, 60 mL) or 6 mL (total volume, 10 mL) of lactated Ringer solution. Horses were anesthetized, and baseline synovial and interstitial fluid samples were collected. A tourniquet was placed, and the assigned treatment was administered via the lateral palmar digital vein. Venous blood pressure in the distal portion of the limb was recorded. Additional synovial fluid samples were collected 30 minutes (just before tourniquet removal) and 24 hours after IVRLP began; additional interstitial fluid samples were collected 6 and 24 hours after IVRLP began.

RESULTS 30 minutes after IVRLP began, mean amikacin concentration in synovial fluid was significantly greater for the large-volume (459 μg/mL) versus small-volume (70 μg/mL) treatment. Six hours after IVRLP, mean concentration in interstitial fluid was greater for the large-volume (723 μg/mL) versus small-volume (21 μg/mL) treatment. Peak venous blood pressure after large-volume IVRLP was significantly higher than after small-volume IVRLP, with no difference between treatments in time required for pressure to return to baseline.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Study findings suggested that large-volume IVRLP would deliver more amikacin to metacarpophalangeal joints of horses than would small-volume IVRLP, without a clinically relevant effect on local venous blood pressure, potentially increasing treatment efficacy.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To determine oxygen metabolism, permeability, and blood flow in isolated joints in response to interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and contribution of innervation.

Sample Population

One metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint of 24 adult horses.

Procedure

The MCP joint was isolated for 6 hours in a pump-perfused, auto-oxygenated, innervated or denervated preparation. Isolated joints were assigned to the following 4 groups: control, control-denervated, inflamed, and inflamed-denervated, and inflammation was induced by intra-articular injection of IL-1β. Circuit arterial and venous pressures, flows, and blood gas tensions, synovial fluid production, and intra-articular pressure were measured. Total vascular resistance; oxygen delivery, consumption, and extraction ratio (ER); and permeability surface area product were calculated. Synovial membrane blood flow was determined at 0, 60, and 330 minutes. Synovial membrane wet-to-dry ratio was obtained, and permeability to macromolecules was determined by intra-articular injection of Evans blue albumin and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran.

Results

Oxygen delivery and synovial membrane blood flow progressively increased but were not different among groups. Oxygen consumption and ER significantly increased in inflamed joints, as did intraarticular pressure and synovial fluid production. Inflamed joints had greater wet-to-dry ratio. Albumin permeability significantly increased in the villous synovial membrane of the inflamed groups, and dextran permeability was increased in the innervated groups, with a trend toward increased permeability in inflamed groups.

Conclusion

Inflammation significantly increased oxygen demand, which was initially met by increased ER. Permeability to small molecules was increased with inflammation; innervation increased permeability to large molecules. Use of an isolated joint model enabled documentation of the physiologic responses of the joint to acute inflammation. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1307–1316)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Pharmacologically induced splenic contraction might be useful during certain medical or surgical procedures in horses. The effects of phenylephrine, an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, on hemodynamic function and splenic dimensions were examined in 6 healthy adult horses. Phenylephrine infusion (1, 3, or 6 μg/kg of body weight/min for 15 minutes) resulted in a dose-related increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure; right atrial pressure; systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial pressures; and packed cell volume (P = 0.0001). Concurrent decreases in heart rate and specific cardiac output (P = 0.0001) were detected, but stroke volume did not vary significantly. The rate pressure product was increased only at the highest phenylephrine dosage (P = 0.012). Bradycardia was observed at all dosages during drug infusion, and second - degree atrioventricular block was detected in 88 % of horses during infusion. Phenylephrine administration caused dose - dependent splenic contraction, as detected by ultrasonographic measurements of splenic area and thickness (P = 0.0001).At the 3- and 6-μg/kg/min infusion rates, splenic area was reduced to 28 and 17 % of baseline measurement, respectively. Splenic dimensions had returned to baseline values by 35 minutes after the end of infusion. Infusion of phenylephrine at a dosage of 3 μg/kg/min for 15 minutes can be used to induce splenic contraction in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Six horses were subjected to 3 hours of low-flow ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion of the large colon. After induction of anesthesia, the large colon was exteriorized through a ventral midline celiotomy. Colonic blood flow was measured continuously, using Doppler ultrasonic flow probes placed on the colonic arteries supplying the dorsal and ventral colons and was allowed to stabilize for 15 to 30 minutes after instrumentation. Low-flow ischemia was induced by reducing colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of baseline (bl) flow. Colonic mucosal, seromuscular, and full-thickness blood flow were determined on a tissue-weight basis by injecting colored microspheres proximally into the colonic artery supplying the ventral colon. Reference blood samples were obtained at a known flow rate from the colonic artery and vein at a site more distal to the site of injection. Left ventral colon biopsy specimens were harvested at bl, 3 hours of ischemia, and 15 minutes of reperfusion. Blood and tissue samples were digested and filtered to collect the microspheres, and dimethylformamide was added to release the colored dyes. Dye concentration in blood and tissue samples was measured by use of spectrophotometry, and tissue-blood flow was calculated. Data were analyzed, using two-way anova for repeated measures; statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Doppler blood flow decreased to approximately 20% of BL, whereas microsphere blood flow ranged between 13.7 and 15.5% of bl at 3 hours of ischemia. Doppler-determined blood flow increased immediately on restoration of blood flow, reached 183% of bl at 15 minutes of reperfusion, and remained at or above bl throughout 3 hours of reperfusion. This reactive hyperemia was also detected, using the colored microspheres; blood flow increased to 242 and 327% of bl at 15 minutes of reperfusion in the mucosal and seromuscular layers, respectively. Mucosal blood flow was not different from seromuscular blood flow at any time, indicating relatively equal distribution of blood flow between these 2 layers. As determined from the venous reference samples, there was no evidence of arteriovenous anastomoses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Radiographs of all 4 fetlocks of 71 Standardbred racehorses were obtained at 3-month intervals for 1 year. Radiographic findings in the abaxial surface of the proximal sesamoid bones were classified into 3 types according to the severity of lesions, and correlation was made with clinical findings at time of examination. Type-1 lesions (1 or 2 linear defects ≤ 1 mm wide) were detected in 55% of horses at the start of training; clinical signs of disease were not manifested, and lesions did not become clinically relevant.

Type-2 lesions (3 or more linear defects ≤1 mm wide) were detected in horses not manifesting clinical signs of disease, and were more frequently observed after 3 months of training. However, 66% of horses affected with diseases of the suspensory apparatus, including superficial flexor tendinitis and suspensory desmitis, also manifested this type of lesion. When lameness was observed, it was associated with the soft tissue problem, and the sesamoid bone changes were considered secondary.

Type-3 lesions (wide, abnormally shaped linear defects) were detected in 7 horses at the start of the study; lesions remained in horses throughout the study and were consistently associated with lameness during training. Type-3 lesions were considered clinically relevant and indicative of primary sesamoiditis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of anti-inflammatory drugs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged and -unchallenged equine synovial membrane in terms of production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hyaluronan, viability, and histomorphologic characteristics.

Sample Population—Synovial membranes were collected from the carpal, tarsocrural, and femoropatellar joints of 6 adult horses.

Procedure—Synovial membranes from each horse were minced and pooled and explants were treated with one of the following: no drug (control), drug, LPS alone, or LPS and drug. Treatment drugs were phenylbutazone (PBZ), flunixin meglumine (FNX), ketoprofen (KET), carprofen (CRP), meloxicam (MEL), low-concentration methylprednisolone (METH), highconcentration METH, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or an experimental COX-2 inhibitor (dissolved in DMSO). Following 48 hours of culture, medium was assayed for PGE2 and hyaluronan concentration. Synovial explants were assessed for viability and histomorphologic characteristics.

Results—For the LPS-challenged explants, PBZ, FNX, KTP, CRP, MEL, and low-concentration METH suppressed PGE2 production, compared with LPS challenge alone. Only MEL suppressed PGE2 production from LPS-challenged explants, compared with unchallenged explants. Synovial explants maintained > 90% viability and there was no significant difference in viability or hyaluronan production among explants. Histomorphologic scores were significantly decreased for explants treated with low-concentration METH or DMSO.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PBZ, FNX, KTP, CRP, MEL, and low-concentration METH suppressed PGE2 production in LPS-challenged explants. Meloxicam appeared to have more selective suppression of COX-2 activity. Histomorphologic scores suggest detrimental effects of METH, DMSO, and the experimental COX-2 inhibitor. Commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs suppress induced synovial membrane PGE2 production without detrimental effects on synovial membrane viability and function. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:54–60)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine short- and long-term outcomes, including recurrence rates, for horses with cecal impaction treated medically or surgically.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—114 horses.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, history, clinical findings, treatment (medical vs surgical), and short-term outcome. Information on longterm outcome was obtained through a mail survey and telephone interview with owners.

Results—54 horses were treated medically, 49 horses were treated surgically, and 11 horses were euthanized after initial examination without further treatment. Horses treated surgically were significantly more likely to have signs of moderate or severe pain than were horses treated medically. Forty-four of the 54 (81%) horses treated medically were discharged from the hospital. Twelve of the 49 horses treated surgically were euthanized at surgery because of cecal rupture. Thirty-five of the 37 (95%) horses that were allowed to recover from surgery were discharged from the hospital. In 34 horses treated surgically, typhlotomy without a bypass procedure was performed. Long-term (≥ 1 year) follow-up information was available for 19 horses treated medically and 28 horses treated surgically. Eighteen (95%) and 25 (89%) of the horses, respectively, were alive at least 1 year after treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that medical and surgical treatment were both associated with favorable outcomes in horses with cecal impactions. In this population, typhlotomy alone without cecal bypass was associated with a low recurrence rate. The long-term prognosis for horses that were discharged from the hospital was good.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To quantitate nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in healthy and interleukin 1β (IL-1β)-exposed equine synovial membrane.

Animals

6 healthy horses, 2 to 8 years old.

Procedure

Recombinant human IL-1β (0.35 ng/kg of body weight) was injected intra-articularly into 1 metacarpophalangeal joint of each horse. The contralateral joint served as an unexposed control. All horses were euthanatized 6 hours after injection of IL-1β, and synovial membrane specimens were assayed for NOS activity by measuring conversion of arginine to citrulline. Severity of inflammation was semiquantitated by analysis of synovial fluids and histologic examination of synovial membrane.

Results

Equine synovial membrane had minimal NOS activity. A significant difference was not detected in NOS activity between control and IL-1β-exposed specimens. Histologic examination revealed a neutrophilic infiltrate in synovial membrane exposed to IL-1β. Synovial fluid from IL-1β-exposed joints had a moderate inflammatory response and significantly greater concentrations of IL-1β and interleukin-6 than fluid from healthy joints.

Conclusion

Healthy equine synovial membrane had low NOS activity that was not affected by exposure to IL-1β. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:714-716)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research