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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objectives

To assess the influence of solvent plus various mixtures on percutaneous absorption and disposition of the carbamate insecticide, carbaryl (CA).

Animals

Skin was obtained from the dorsum of 14 female weanling specific-pathogen-free Yorkshire pigs.

Procedure

In this 8-hour in vitro flow-through diffusion study, porcine skin sections were dosed with 40 μg of CA/cm2 of surface area, different amounts of solvents (40 or 80% acetone or dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]), different amounts of a surfactant (0, 1, or 5% sodium lauryl sulfate [SLS]), an insect repellent (0 or 15% diethyl-m-toluamide [DEET]), an insecticide synergist (0 or 2% piperonyl butoxide [PB]), and a CA metabolite (40 μg/cm2 1-naphthol (1-NA]).

Results

In general, CA absorption was greater from acetone than from DMSO mixtures, and CA penetration into skin and stratum corneum was greater from DMSO at 8 hours. This is consistent with the flux-time profiles, which depicted initial peak flux within 2 to 3 hours for most acetone mixtures, but a slow increase in flux for DMSO mixtures. Irrespective of the solvent, increasing water content in pesticide dosing mixtures significantly increased CA absorption from SLS mixtures only. The SLS also enhanced CA absorption, especially at low solvent concentrations. The DEET significantly reduced CA absorption from acetone, but not from DMSO mixtures, and 1-NA enhanced CA absorption from acetone, but not from DMSO mixtures. Piperonyl butoxide significantly enhanced CA absorption from acetone and DMSO mixtures. However, addition of PB or PB plus SLS did not significantly increase CA flux above that observed from solvent plus surfactant mixtures.

Conclusions

Inert ingredients can modulate percutaneous absorption of toxicologically important pesticides and their effect or activity on CA disposition is dependent on solvent specificity and solvent concentration. Whereas SLS, PB, and 1-NA can enhance pesticide absorption, DEET can reduce absorption. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:168–175)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To develop and validate a population pharmacokinetic model for gentamicin in horses, using retrospective clinical data.

Animals

62 horses that had been treated IV with multiple doses of gentamicin at our veterinary teaching hospital between 1987 and 1996.

Procedure

46 horses were assigned to the study group, and 16 to the validation group. Detailed history of dosage, sample collection times, and selected pathophysiologic variables were recorded for each patient. Samples were analyzed by use of a fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. Pharm-acostatistical analysis was conducted, using computer software. The predictive model correlates pharmacokinetic parameters to concomitant pathophysiologic variables and estimates the inter- and intraindividual variability in disposition.

Results

A two-compartment model best described the data. Clearance (Cl) was linearly correlated to body weight and serum creatinine concentration. Volume of the central compartment (Vdc) was linearly related to body weight. Interindividual coefficients of variability for Cl and Vdc were 24 and 16%, respectively. The residual variability (intraindividual) was 13%; mean prediction error percent (bias) was 2%; and mean absolute prediction error percent (precision) was 29%.

Conclusions

Population pharmacokinetic analysis allows study of the basic features of gentamicin disposition in horses with sparse data per individual. A considerable proportion of the pharmacokinetic variability of gentamicin in our study population was explained by differences in body weight and serum creatinine concentration.

Clinical Relevance

Population pharmacokinetics can be used to design first-dosage regimens according to the clinical characteristics of individual animals. Population pharmacokinetic models could also be included in Bayesian forecasting strategies to improve plasma concentration predictions in individual patients. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1589-1598)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To model the plasma tetracycline concentrations in swine (Sus scrofa domestica) treated with medication administered in water and determine the factors that contribute to the most accurate predictions of measured plasma drug concentrations.

Sample—Plasma tetracycline concentrations measured in blood samples from 3 populations of swine.

Procedures—Data from previous studies provided plasma tetracycline concentrations that were measured in blood samples collected from 1 swine population at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, 80, 96, and 104 hours and from 2 swine populations at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours hours during administration of tetracycline hydrochloride dissolved in water. A 1-compartment pharmacostatistical model was used to analyze 5 potential covariate schemes and determine factors most important in predicting the plasma concentrations of tetracycline in swine.

Results—2 models most accurately predicted the tetracycline plasma concentrations in the 3 populations of swine. Factors of importance were body weight or age of pig, ambient temperature, concentration of tetracycline in water, and water use per unit of time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The factors found to be of importance, combined with knowledge of the individual pharmacokinetic and chemical properties of medications currently approved for administration in water, may be useful in more prudent administration of approved medications administered to swine. Factors found to be important in pharmacostatistical models may allow prediction of plasma concentrations of tetracycline or other commonly used medications administered in water. The ability to predict in vivo concentrations of medication in a population of food animals can be combined with bacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations to decrease the risk of developing antimicrobial resistance.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop a flow-limited, physiologicbased pharmacokinetic model for use in estimating concentrations of sulfamethazine after IV administration to swine.

Sample Population—4 published studies provided physiologic values for organ weights, blood flows, clearance, and tissue-to-blood partition coefficients, and 3 published studies provided data on plasma and other tissue compartments for model validation.

Procedure—For the parent compound, the model included compartments for blood, adipose, muscle, liver, and kidney tissue with an extra compartment representing the remaining carcass. Compartments for the N-acetyl metabolite included the liver and the remaining body. The model was created and optimized by use of computer software. Sensitivity analysis was completed to evaluate the importance of each constant on the whole model. The model was validated and used to estimate a withhold interval after an IV injection at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The withhold interval was compared to the interval estimated by the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD).

Results—Specific tissue correlations for plasma, adipose, muscle, kidney, and liver tissue compartments were 0.93, 0.86, 0.99, 0.94, and 0.98, respectively. The model typically overpredicted concentrations at early time points but had excellent accuracy at later time points. The withhold interval estimated by use of the model was 120 hours, compared with 100 hours estimated by FARAD.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of this model enabled accurate prediction of sulfamethazine pharmacokinetics in swine and has applications for food safety and prediction of drug residues in edible tissues. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1686–1693)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin after oral administration in juvenile harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) at a dose of 5 mg/kg (2.3 mg/lb) and to compare pharmacokinetic variables after pharmacokinetic analysis by naïve averaged, naïve pooled, and nonlinear mixed-effects modeling.

Design—Original study.

Animals—33 male and 22 female juvenile seals being treated for various conditions.

Procedures—Blood collection was limited to ≤ 3 samples/seal. Plasma marbofloxacin concentrations were measured via high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detection.

Results—Mean ± SE dose of marbofloxacin administered was 5.3 ± 0.1 mg/kg (2.4 ± 0.05 mg/lb). The terminal half-life, volume of distribution (per bioavailability), and clearance (per bioavailability) were approximately 5 hours, approximately 1.4 L/kg, and approximately 3 mL/min/kg, respectively (values varied slightly with the method of calculation). Maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma-time concentration curve were approximately 3 μg/mL and 30 h·μg/mL, respectively. Naïve averaged and naïve pooled analysis appeared to yield a better fit to the population, but nonlinear mixed-effects modeling yielded a better fit for individual seals.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Values of pharmacokinetic variables were similar regardless of the analytic method used. Pharmacokinetic variability can be assessed with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, but not with naïve averaged or naïve pooled analysis. Visual observation by experienced trainers revealed no adverse effects in treated seals. Plasma concentrations attained with a dosage of 5 mg/kg every 24 hours would be expected to be efficacious for treatment of infections caused by susceptible bacteria (excluding Pseudomonas aeruginosa).

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association