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  • Author or Editor: Jihye Choi x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of region of interest (ROI) setting and slice thickness on trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) measured with quantitative CT in dogs.

Animals—14 healthy Beagles.

Procedures—CT of the lumbar vertebrae and a quantitative CT phantom was performed. The BMD of trabecular bone was measured from L1 to L7 in 2 ways in all dogs. First, sequential 9.6-mm-thick CT images were acquired and then CT images were reconstructed into transverse CT images with slice thicknesses of 2.4, 4.8, and 9.6 mm. The obtained images were analyzed by circular ROI and trace ROI methods. Second, lumbar vertebrae were scanned with the installed quantitative CT protocol with a slice thickness of 10 mm and then the CT images were analyzed by installed automatic BMD software.

Results—Interclass correlation coefficients of the automatic software (0.975 to 1.0) and the circular method (0.871 to 0.996) were high, compared with those of the trace method (0.582 to 0.996). The BMD measured with the automatic software was not significantly different from that measured with circular ROI and a slice thickness of 9.6 mm. The BMD measured by use of the circular method was not different according to slice thickness.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results obtained by use of automatic software were similar to those obtained by use of more manual methods. The CT images with thinner slice thickness (2.4 and 4.8 mm) could be used in dogs of toy and small breeds to measure lumbar vertebrae BMD to reduce the limitations of the standard 10-mm slice thickness.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of contrast medium injection rate on CT-derived renal perfusion estimates obtained with the maximum slope method in healthy small dogs.

ANIMALS 6 healthy sexually intact male purpose-bred Beagles.

PROCEDURES All dogs underwent CT perfusion analysis 3 times in a crossover design, receiving a different contrast medium injection rate (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mL/s) each time, with a 1-week interval between imaging sessions. All CT images were obtained at the level of the left renal hilus. The time to peak aortic enhancement (TPAE) and time to initial renal venous enhancement (TIRVE) were measured from time-attenuation curves. The renal CT perfusion estimates (blood flow and blood volume) were estimated by use of the maximum slope method, which assumes no venous outflow of contrast medium during CT perfusion analysis.

RESULTS The TPAE occurred at or before the TIRVE at all injection rates. Median values of estimated blood flow and blood volume did not differ significantly among injection rates.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the assumption of no venous outflow of contrast medium during renal CT perfusion analysis with the maximum slope method was satisfied for all 3 contrast medium injection rates in the evaluated dogs. A low injection rate may be more practical than higher injection rates that require large catheters for CT perfusion analysis in small dogs such as Beagles.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of kernel and window settings on the assessment of small and complicated vasculature in CT angiographic (CTA) images of kidneys, jejunum with mesentery, and tumors in dogs.

ANIMALS

20 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with tumors.

PROCEDURES

Images from CTA performed previously in dogs were reconstructed with 3 different combinations of kernel and window settings (soft kernel with soft tissue window, soft kernel with bone window, and sharp kernel with bone window), and reconstructed images of the left kidney and the jejunum with the mesentery in healthy dogs and tumors in affected dogs were evaluated by reviewers blinded to the settings.

RESULTS

For images of kidney and jejunum with mesentery, reviewers’ scores for the conspicuity of vascularity in the arterial phase and the differentiation of the organs from the adjacent structures were significantly higher when viewed in bone window (vs soft tissue window) regardless of kernel setting. For images of head and gastrointestinal tumors, reviewers’ scores for differentiation of intratumoral vasculature were higher when viewed in sharp kernel with bone window versus other setting combinations. However, the conspicuity of gastrointestinal, hepatic, or splenic tumoral vessels from the adjacent structures had higher reviewer scores for images in soft kernel with soft tissue window, compared with other setting combinations.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that reconstruction of CTA images with sharp kernel combined with bone window settings might have clinical utility in evaluating and planning treatments for dogs with various tumors; however, additional research is warranted to further identify effects of various kernel and window setting combinations on assessments of small and complicated vasculature in larger and more diverse populations of dogs with and without tumors.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare qualitative features and quantitative parameters of 2 contrast agents (sulfur hexafluoride microbubbles [SHM; SonoVue] and perfluoro-butane [PFB; Sonazoid]) for performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) of the pancreas in dogs.

ANIMALS

8 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES

In a crossover study design, CEUS of the pancreas was performed twice in each dog, once with SHM and once with PFB, in random order with at least 3 days between examinations. The recorded cine images were qualitatively assessed for homogeneity of pancreatic enhancement and conspicuity of the pancreatic signal relative to the background. For the quantitative assessment, circular regions of interest were placed over the pancreatic body, and a time-intensity curve was obtained. For each region of interest, CEUS parameters including peak intensity (PI), time to peak pancreatic enhancement, area under the curve (AUC), and wash-in rate were obtained.

RESULTS

The homogeneity of the pancreatic parenchyma was not significantly different between contrast agents. The signal conspicuity relative to background noise was significantly higher with PFB than with SHM. Mean values of PI, wash-in rate, and AUC were significantly higher with PFB than with SHM. Time to peak enhancement was not significantly different between contrast agents.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Pancreatic CEUS with SHM and PFB produced similar homogeneity scores, but only PFB provided excellent signal conspicuity. Perfluorobutane produced higher values of PI, wash-in rate, and AUC. Findings indicated that PFB can provide homogeneous and strong enhancement of the pancreas during CEUS in healthy dogs and that pancreatic CEUS parameter values differ with the contrast agent used.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the efficacy of a phospholipid-stabilized sulfur hexafluoride microsphere (SHM) contrast agent and water for hydrosonography of the upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs.

ANIMALS

12 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES

In a crossover study, each dog was anesthetized and underwent noncontrast ultrasonography then hydrosonography following administration of tap water (30 mL/kg) without (water method) or with SHM (0.1 mL; SHM method) via an orogastric tube. There were at least 3 days between hydro-sonographic procedures. Wall thickness, wall layer definition, conspicuity of the mucosal-luminal interface, and image quality were evaluated separately in the near and far fields for the gastric cardia, body, and pylorus and descending duodenum and compared among the 3 scanning methods.

RESULTS

Mean wall thickness measurements did not differ significantly between the water and SHM methods at any location except the far-field gastric cardia where the mean wall thickness for the SHM method was less than that for the water method. In general, the SHM method improved wall layer definition and conspicuity of the mucosal-luminal interface of structures in the near field, compared with noncontrast method. The water and SHM methods both resulted in superior image quality relative to the noncontrast method for the near-field gastric cardia, far-field gastric cardia, and far-field duodenum.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that, for dogs, gastrointestinal hydrosonography by use of the SHM method improved wall layer definition and mucosal conspicuity, particularly in near-field images of the upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract. (Am J Vet Res 2021;82:712–721)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate dynamic movement of the diaphragm of clinically normal dogs by use of fluoroscopy and to obtain quantitative data of diaphragmatic excursion during spontaneous breathing.

ANIMALS 8 healthy male Beagles with no history of respiratory tract disease.

PROCEDURES Fluoroscopy was performed during stabilized respiratory conditions. The beam center was located at the level of the diaphragm, and diaphragmatic motion was recorded during 3 respiratory cycles in dogs positioned in left lateral, right lateral, and dorsal recumbency. Extent of excursion of the diaphragmatic cupula and both crura, difference in excursion between the left and right crura, and ratios of the excursions of the diaphragmatic cupula and left and right crura to the length of the eighth thoracic vertebra were determined.

RESULTS Diaphragmatic crural excursion was symmetric for dogs in right lateral recumbency, and the crural excursion was approximately three-quarters of the vertebral length; however, crural excursion appeared to be asymmetric for dogs in left lateral recumbency. Mean ± SD difference in excursion between the right and left crura was 22.68 ± 8.68% for left lateral recumbency, 16.63 ± 9.22% for right lateral recumbency, and 18.11 ± 12.96% for dorsal recumbency.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the fluoroscopic view of a dog positioned in right lateral recumbency may allow better evaluation of the symmetry of diaphragmatic excursion, compared with results for other recumbency positions. This study provided quantitative data on the excursion of diaphragmatic movement observed by use of fluoroscopy in clinically normal Beagles.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of slice thickness on CT perfusion analysis of the pancreas in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS

12 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES

After precontrast CT scans, CT perfusion scans of the pancreatic body were performed every second for 30 seconds by sequential CT scanning after injection of contrast medium (iohexol; 300 mg of 1/kg) at a rate of 3 mL/s. Each dog underwent CT perfusion scans twice in a crossover-design study with 2 different slice thicknesses (2.4 and 4.8 mm). Computed tomographic pancreatic perfusion variables, including blood flow, blood volume determined with the maximum slope model, times to the start of enhancement and peak enhancement, permeability, and blood volume determined by Patlak plot analysis, were measured independently by 2 reviewers. The CT perfusion variables were compared between slice thicknesses. Interoperator reproducibility was determined by ICC calculation.

RESULTS

Interoperator reproducibility of CT perfusion variable measurements was excellent on 2.4-mm (mean ± SD ICC, 0.81 ± 0.17) and 4.8-mm (0.90 ± 0.07) slice thicknesses, except for time to peak pancreatic enhancement on 2.4-mm-thick slices, which had moderate reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.473). There was no significant difference in measurements of blood flow, blood volume by either method, times to the start and peak of pancreatic enhancement, or permeability between slice thicknesses.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results supported that a thin slice thickness of 2.4 mm can be used for assessment of pancreatic perfusion variables in healthy dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of position, time in that position, and positive end-expiratory pressure on ground-glass opacity caused by physiologic atelectasis on lung CT images and to determine effects of recumbency position before CT.

ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were placed in 4 positions (sternal, dorsal, right lateral, and left lateral recumbency) for 2 holding times (30 and 60 minutes). Dogs were then repositioned in sternal recumbency, and CT was performed at 2 positive end-expiratory pressures (0 and 15 mm Hg). Location, distribution, and degree of ground-glass opacities were evaluated on lung CT images. Volume and mean density of the lungs and ground-glass opacities as well as maximum density of ground-glass opacities were evaluated.

RESULTS Ground-glass opacities were mainly observed in parts of the lungs that were dependent during the various positions before CT, except for sternal recumbency. Opacities were reversible and decreased or disappeared after lung inflation. Ground-glass opacities were observed most frequently and had greatest severity when dogs were positioned in left lateral recumbency before CT. Ground-glass opacities were negligible for dogs positioned in sternal recumbency before CT.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Location and reversibility of ground-glass opacities may help clinicians distinguish whether they are attributable to atelectasis or a result of pathological changes. Dogs should be positioned in sternal recumbency to minimize the occurrence of ground-glass opacities, particularly when several procedures are performed before CT, which increases the time that a dog will remain in the same position.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate effects of airway pressure on contrast enhancement and diameter of the pulmonary artery and determine the optimal airway pressure for pulmonary CT angiography in dogs.

ANIMALS

8 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Thoracic CT was performed at end-expiration (0 cm H2O) and 2 positive-pressure end-inspirations (10 and 20 cm H2O). Attenuation curves of enhancement for the sinus of the pulmonary trunk artery were obtained by use of a bolus technique. Contrast medium (300 mg of I/kg) was administered IV, and CT imaging began at the time of peak enhancement. At each pressure, time to peak enhancement, ratio of blood flow from the caudal vena cava to the right side of the heart (KCdVC), and enhancement characteristics and diameter changes of the pulmonary artery were evaluated.

RESULTS

All dogs had a significant delay for time to peak enhancement in the sinus of the pulmonary trunk artery as airway pressure increased. The KCdVC progressively increased as airway pressure increased, and there was low contrast enhancement and increased pulmonary artery filling defects at 20 cm H2O. All pulmonary arteries had marked increases in diameter as pressure increased. Arterial distensibility in the gravity-dependent cranial lung region was greater than that in the gravity-independent caudal lung region at the 2 positive-pressure end-inspirations.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Airway pressure affected time to peak enhancement, KCdVC, contrast enhancement, and pulmonary artery diameter. Results suggested that 10 cm H2O could be an optimal pressure for evaluation of the pulmonary artery of dogs by use of CT angiography. (Am J Vet Res 2019;80;756–763)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the diagnostic usefulness of split-bolus CT enterography in dogs.

ANIMALS

6 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES

CT enterography was performed in all dogs in a nonrandomized crossover study design involving 3 techniques: a dual-phase technique and 2 techniques involving splitting of the administered contrast agent dose (ie, split technique and split-bolus tracking technique). For the 2 techniques involving dose splitting (ie, split CT enterography), contrast agent was injected twice, with the first injection consisting of 60% of the total dose, followed by injection of the remaining 40%. Then, a single set of CT images was obtained when the arterial and venous phases matched (dual-phase and split techniques) or when enhancement of the abdominal aorta reached 100 HU (split-bolus tracking technique). Enhancement of the intestinal wall and mesenteric vessels was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively.

RESULTS

The total number of images required for interpretation was significantly lower for the split technique than for the dual-phase technique. The amount of time needed to complete CT enterography was significantly less for the split-bolus tracking technique than for the other 2 techniques. For all 3 techniques, adequate contrast enhancement of the mesenteric vessels and intestinal wall was achieved. The split technique provided contrast enhancement of the intestinal wall and mesenteric vessels similar to that provided with the dual-phase technique, whereas contrast enhancement of these structures was lowest for the split-bolus tracking technique.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Split-bolus CT enterography at a contrast agent allocation ratio of 60:40 enabled simultaneous evaluation of the enhanced intestine wall and mesenteric vessels and yielded image quality similar to that of dual-phase CT enterography in healthy dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research