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  • Author or Editor: Jessica J. Kilkenny x
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OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of pneumoperitoneum created with warmed humidified CO2 (WHCO2) during laparoscopy on core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, systemic inflammation, peritoneal response, and signs of postoperative pain in healthy mature dogs.

ANIMALS 6 mature purpose-bred dogs.

PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, each dog was anesthetized twice, and pneumoperitoneum was created with standard-temperature CO2 (STCO2; 22°C and 0% relative humidity) and WHCO2 (37°C and 98% relative humidity). Data were collected during each procedure, including core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, and inflammatory biomarkers. Peritoneal biopsy specimens were collected and evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Dogs were assessed for signs of postoperative pain.

RESULTS Mean core body temperature was significantly lower (35.2°C; 95% confidence interval, 34.5° to 35.8°C) with WHCO2 than with STCO2 (35.9°C; 95% confidence interval, 35.3° to 36.6°C) across all time points. Cardiac index increased during the procedure for both treatments but was not significantly different between treatments. Thromboelastography variables did not differ significantly between treatments as indicated by the coagulation index. Subjective evaluation of peritoneal biopsy specimens revealed mesothelial cell loss with STCO2. There was no significant difference in circulating C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 concentrations. There was a significant increase in the number of postoperative pain scores > 0 for the WHCO2 treatment versus the STCO2 treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Analysis of these data suggested that effects on evaluated variables attributable to the use of WHCO2 for creating pneumoperitoneum in healthy mature dogs undergoing laparoscopy did not differ from effects for the use of STCO2.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To determine whether simulator-assessed laparoscopic skills of veterinary students were associated with training level and prior experience performing nonlaparoscopic veterinary surgery and other activities requiring hand-eye coordination and manual dexterity.

DESIGN Experiment.

SAMPLE 145 students without any prior laparoscopic surgical or fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) simulator experience in years 1 (n = 39), 2 (34), 3 (39), and 4 (33) at a veterinary college.

PROCEDURES A questionnaire was used to collect data from participants regarding experience performing veterinary surgery, playing video games, and participating in other activities. Participants performed a peg transfer, pattern cutting, and ligature loop-placement task on an FLS simulator, and FLS scores were assigned by an observer. Scores were compared among academic years, and correlations between amounts of veterinary surgical experience and FLS scores were assessed. A general linear model was used to identify predictors of FLS scores.

RESULTS Participants were predominantly female (75%), right-hand dominant (92%), and between 20 and 29 years of age (98%). No significant differences were identified among academic years in FLS scores for individual tasks or total FLS score. Scores were not significantly associated with prior surgical or video game experience. Participants reporting no handicraft experience had significantly lower total FLS scores and FLS scores for task 2 than did participants reporting a lot of handicraft experience.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Prior veterinary surgical and video game experience had no influence on FLS scores in this group of veterinary students, suggesting that proficiency of veterinary students in FLS may require specific training.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe surgical technique, biopsy sample quality, and short-term outcome of minimally invasive small intestinal exploration and targeted abdominal organ biopsy (MISIETB) with use of a wound retraction device (WRD) in dogs.


27 client-owned dogs that underwent MISIETB with a WRD at 1 of 4 academic veterinary hospitals between January 1, 2010, and May 1, 2017.


Medical records were retrospectively reviewed, and data collected included signalment; medical history; findings from physical, ultrasonographic, laparoscopic, cytologic, and histologic evaluations; surgical indications, procedures, duration, and complications; and short-term (14-day) outcomes. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to evaluate the normality of continuous variables, and descriptive statistics were calculated for numeric variables.


Laparoscopic exploration was performed through a multicannulated single port (n = 18), multiple ports (5), or a single 6-mm cannula (4). Median length of the incision for WRD placement was 4 cm (interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 3 to 6 cm). All biopsy samples obtained had sufficient diagnostic quality. The 2 most common histologic diagnoses were lymphoplasmacytic enteritis (n = 14) and intestinal lymphoma (5). Twenty-five of 27 (93%) dogs survived to hospital discharge, and 3 (12%) dogs had postsurgical abnormalities unrelated to surgical technique.


Results indicated that MISIETB with WRD was an effective method for obtaining diagnostic biopsy samples of the stomach, small intestine, pancreas, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes in dogs. Prospective comparison between MISIETB with WRD and traditional laparotomy for abdominal organ biopsy in dogs is warranted.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association