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SUMMARY

Experiments were carried out on 8 healthy ponies to examine the effects of prolonged submaximal exercise on regional distribution of brain blood flow. Brain blood flow was ascertained by use of 15-μm-diameter radionuclide-labeled microspheres injected into the left ventricle. The reference blood was withdrawn from the thoracic aorta at a constant rate of 21.0 ml/min. Hemodynamic data were obtained with the ponies at rest (control), and at 5, 15, and 26 minutes of exercise performed at a speed setting of 13 mph on a treadmill with a fixed incline of 7%. Exercise lasted for 30 minutes and was carried out at an ambient temperature of 20 C. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and core temperature increased significantly with exercise. With the ponies at rest, a marked heterogeneity of perfusion was observed within the brain; the cerebral, as well as cerebellar gray matter, had greater blood flow than in the respective white matter, and a gradually decreasing gradient of blood flow existed from thalamus-hypothalamus to medulla. This pattern of perfusion heterogeneity was preserved during exercise. Regional brain blood flow at 5 and 15 minutes of exercise remained similar to resting values. However, at 26 minutes of exercise, vasoconstriction resulted in a significant reduction in blood flow to all cerebral and brain-stem regions. In the cerebellum, the gray matter blood flow and vascular resistance remained near control values even at 26 minutes of exercise. Vasoconstriction in various regions of the cerebrum and brainstem at 26 minutes of exertion may have occurred in response to exercise-induced hypocapnia, arterial hypertension, and/or sympathetic neural activation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Tracheal, bronchial, and renal blood flow were studied in 8 healthy ponies at rest and during exercise performed on a treadmill at a speed setting of 20.8 km/h and 7% grade (incline) for 30 minutes. Blood flow was determined with 15-μm-diameter radionuclide-labeled microspheres that were injected into the left ventricle when the ponies were at rest, and at 5, 15, and 26 minutes of exertion. Heart rate and mean aortic pressure increased from resting values (40 ± 2 beats/min and 124 ± 3 mm of Hg, respectively) to 152 ± 8 beats/min and 133 ± 4 mm of Hg at 5 minutes of exercise, to 169 ± 6 beats/min and 143 ± 5 mm of Hg at 15 minutes of exercise, and to 186 ± 8 beats/min, and 150 ± 5 mm of Hg at 26 minutes of exercise. Tracheal blood flow at rest and during exercise remained significantly (P < 0.05) less than bronchial blood flow. Tracheal blood flow increased only slightly with exercise. Vasodilation caused bronchial blood flow to increase throughout exercise. Pulmonary arterial blood temperature of ponies also increased significantly (P < 0.05) with exercise and a significant (P < 0.005) correlation was found between bronchial blood flow and pulmonary arterial blood temperature during exertion. At 5 minutes of exercise, renal blood flow was unchanged from the resting value; however, renal vasoconstriction was observed at 15 and 26 minutes of exercise. We concluded that bronchial circulation of ponies increased with exercise in close association with a rise in pulmonary arterial blood temperature. Also, increased thermal burden necessitated redistribution of blood flow away from kidneys late in exercise.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Distribution of blood flow among various respiratory muscles was examined in 8 healthy ponies during submaximal exercise lasting 30 minutes, using radionuclide labeled 15-μm diameter microspheres injected into the left ventricle. From the resting values (40 ± 2 beats/min; 37.3 ± 0.2 C), heart rate and pulmonary arterial blood temperature increased significantly at 5 (152 ± 8 beats/min; 38.6 ± 0.2 C), 15 (169 ± 6 beats/min; 39.8 ± 0.2 C), and 26 (186 ± 8 beats/min; 40.8 ± 0.2 C) minutes of exertion, and the ponies sweated profusely. Mean aortic pressure also increased progressively as exercise duration increased. Blood flow increased significantly with exercise in all respiratory muscles. Among inspiratory muscles, perfusion was greatest in the diaphragm and ventral serratus, compared with external intercostal, dorsal serratas, and scalenus muscles. Among expiratory muscles, blood flow in the internal abdominal oblique muscle was greatest, followed by that in internal intercostal and transverse throacic muscles, in which the flow values remained similar. The remaining 3 abdominal muscles had similar blood flow, but these values were less than that in the internal intercostal, transverse thoracic, and internal abdominal oblique muscles. Blood flow values for all inspiratory and expiratory muscles remained similar for the 5 and 15 minutes of exertion. However, at 26 minutes, blood flow had increased further in the diaphragm, external intercostal, internal intercostal, transverse thoracic, and the external abdominal oblique muscle as vascular resistance decreased. On the basis of our findings, all respiratory muscles were activated during submaximal exercise and their perfusion had marked heterogeneity. Also, blood flow in respiratory muscles was well maintained as exercise duration progressed; in fact, several muscles had a further increase in perfusion late during exercise.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research