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Objective—To develop a technique for neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser ventriculocordectomy in standing horses and document healing in horses undergoing laser ventriculocordectomy.

Animals—6 horses between 2 and 32 years old.

Procedure—Under endoscopic guidance, the left laryngeal ventricle was everted with grasping forceps and excised with an Nd:YAG laser, using 60 watts of power in a noncontact fashion (6,403 to 9,197 Joules). Following removal of the ventricle, the vocal cord was photoablated. Horses were examined endoscopically 2, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 47 days after ventriculocordectomy, and 1 horse was euthanatized on each of these days. At necropsy, the larynx was removed intact and examined grossly. Samples were collected for histologic examination of the ventriculocordectomy site.

Results—Endoscopic examination revealed granulation tissue by day 7, the start of epithelialization by day 21, and healing by day 47. At necropsy, 4 horses were found to have a small amount of ventricular mucosa remaining dorsally and 1 additional horse was found to have a mucocele. Granulation tissue was identified grossly and histologically in the horses euthanatized between 7 and 30 days after surgery. Incipient reepithelialization was evident histologically on day 14, and complete reepithelialization of the surgery site was evident by day 47.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that ventriculocordectomy can safely be performed with an Nd:YAG laser in standing horses. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:531–537)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate efficacy of debridement for treatment of supraspinous bursitis in horses and to evaluate the outcome.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—10 horses with clinical signs of supraspinous bursitis.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, anamnesis, results of physical and radiographic examination, microbial culture results of supraspinous bursa tissue or exudate, Brucella abortustiters, type of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapies, surgical technique, complications of the surgical procedure, and findings on histologic examination of excised nuchal ligament and bursal tissue. Telephone follow-up with owners, trainers, or referring veterinarians was performed.

Results—The described surgical technique was effective in resolving drainage from the supraspinous bursal region in 5 of 6 horses available for long-term follow-up. The most common complication following surgery was the development of purulent wound drainage. Two horses required multiple surgeries to resolve clinical signs of supraspinous bursitis. The most common organism isolated from the supraspinous bursa was β- hemolytic Streptococcus spp. All horses were discharged from the hospital and long-term follow-up was available for 6 horses. All 6 horses could be used for their intended use.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Debridement in standing horses is an effective method of resolving clinical signs of supraspinous bursitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:74–78)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—2 horses and 1 pony were evaluated for right-sided (1 horse and the pony) and left-sided (1 horse) acute epistaxis of 1 day's to 1 month's duration.

Clinical Findings—Endoscopic examination of the 3 equids revealed that the hemorrhage originated from the right maxillary artery in 2 equids and from the left internal carotid artery in the third. Mycosis of the auditory tube diverticulum (guttural pouch) was detected in all 3 equids.

Treatment and Outcome—All 3 equids underwent surgery, and transarterial nitinol intravascular plugs were placed to occlude affected blood vessels. All equids survived for a long period (ie, a minimum of 1 to 2 years) and returned to their previous use. All had complete regression of clinical signs of guttural pouch mycosis without additional medical treatment.

Clinical Relevance—The use of transarterial nitinol intravascular plugs appeared to be an effective alternative to other techniques for the treatment of epistaxis secondary to guttural pouch mycosis, including transarterial occlusion devices such as embolization coils.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



A 13-year-old 128-kg miniature donkey gelding was evaluated for right forelimb lameness of 7 weeks’ duration.


Muscular atrophy of the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles over the right scapula with a palpable bony prominence over the point of the shoulder was evident. At the walk, the cranial phase of the stride was reduced with adduction of the distal aspect of the limb, dragging of the toe, and lameness (grade, 4/5). Lateral and craniocaudal radiographs of the right shoulder joint revealed lateral luxation of the humerus in relation to the scapula with bony proliferation and remodeling of the humeral head.


Glenoid ostectomy was performed. Immediately after surgery, the donkey was able to intermittently stand squarely on the limb but maintained a reduced cranial phase of the stride at the walk. The donkey had no short-term complications and was discharged from the hospital 11 days after surgery. Following discharge, the donkey was confined to a box stall for 60 days, followed by a gradual increase in movement to full pasture turnout. The lameness continued to improve, and at 15 months after surgery the donkey was turned out in pasture and had mild lameness (grade, 3/5) at the trot. Mild muscular atrophy of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles was present with no signs of pain on palpation or manipulation of the limb. Shoulder joint radiography at 15 months after surgery revealed remodeling of the glenoid cavity of the scapula and humeral head with formation of a pseudoarthrosis.


Glenoid ostectomy should be considered as an alternative to shoulder joint arthrodesis in small equids with shoulder joint luxation. Other indications for this procedure could include chronic osteoarthritis or fractures affecting the shoulder joint.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the management of equids undergoing cryptorchidectomy at a referral hospital.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—604 client-owned equids.

Procedures—Medical records of all equids undergoing surgical treatment of cryptorchidism from 1977 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Analyses of breed, location of retained testes, accuracy of palpation per rectum for determining the location of retained testes, surgical technique, and postoperative complications were performed.

Results—The most frequently affected breed was the Quarter Horse (282/604 [47%]), which was significantly overrepresented. Of the 604 equids, 90 (15%) had undergone previous surgical attempts at castration. Preoperative palpation per rectum was performed in 395/604 (65.4%) patients, and was accurate in predicting the location of the retained testes in 354/395 (89.6%). Surgeons were significantly more likely to be incorrect in determining the location of the retained testis by means of palpation per rectum in patients that had undergone a prior attempt at castration. For equids with abdominal cryptorchidism (360/604 [59.6%]), the most common surgical technique was noninvasive cryptorchidectomy (298/360 [82.8%]). In unilateral cryptorchids (521/604 [86.3%]), the 2 most common sites were left abdominal (184/521 [35.3%]) and right inguinal (148/521 [28.4%]). For bilateral retention (80/604 [13.2%]), abdominal cryptorchidism was most common (48/80 [60%]). Fever was present in 138/324 (43%) equids on the first day after surgery. Postoperative fever was not significantly associated with any variables evaluated. Including postoperative (≤ 24 hours) fever, 150 of 604 (25%) patients developed postoperative complications. Excluding postoperative fever, 18 of 604 (3%) patients developed major postoperative complications; complications in 10 of 604 patients were deemed surgically related, and 3 of 604 patients died.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cryptorchidectomy in equids performed with a variety of surgical approaches was associated with minimal postoperative complications. A history of previous attempts at castration decreased the ability to accurately predict the location of the retained testis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To evaluate reproductive performance and productive longevity of dairy cows treated for left displaced abomasum (LDA) with 1 of 2 surgical techniques (omentopexy vs pyloro-omentopexy).

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 87 Holstein cows that underwent omentopexy or pyloro-omentopexy for LDA during a 5-year period.

PROCEDURES For each cow with LDA, the most recent date of calving, age at time of surgery, and surgical procedure were recorded. Dairy records of cows treated for LDA in the 5-year period were reviewed to determine their reproductive performance. Records available for up to 4 years after the last surgery (ie, when all treated cows had left the herd) were reviewed to determine cull dates and reasons for treated and untreated cows in the herd.

RESULTS Of the 87 cows with LDA, 58 underwent pyloro-omentopexy and 29 underwent omentopexy. Cows in the 2 treatment groups did not significantly differ in age. Fifty-six cows completed > 1 subsequent lactation cycle after surgery. The median time that cows with LDA remained in the herd was 566 days (range, 24 to 1,838 days); the times for the 2 treatment groups did not significantly differ. For treated and untreated cows, cull rates for reproductive failure or other problems were similar. Four (14%) omentopexy–treated cows and no pyloro-omentopexy–treated cows had a reoccurrence of LDA.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that cows with LDA that underwent omentopexy or pyloro-omentopexy had similar cull rates and reasons as unaffected herd mates over their productive time in the herd. Between the 2 treatment groups, only the LDA reoccurrence rate differed.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe cryptorchidectomy performed with a paramedian or inguinal approach in domestic pigs and compare findings for commercial-breed pigs with those for pot-bellied pigs.


47 client-owned (33 commercial-breed and 14 pot-bellied) pigs.


Medical records were searched to identify pigs that underwent surgical treatment for cryptorchidism from 2000 to 2018. Signalment, location of retained testes, surgeon, surgical approach, surgery time, anesthesia time, and postoperative complications were recorded. Complications were assessed with long-term follow-up. Age and surgical variables were compared between commercial-breed pigs and pot-bellied pigs.


Retained testes were most commonly located in the abdomen (27/47 [57%] left-sided, 15/47 [32%] right-sided, and 2/47 [4%] bilateral); 2 pigs each had 1 retained testis in the inguinal region, and 1 pig had 1 retained testis in the abdomen and 1 in the inguinal region. Forty-four pigs with abdominally retained testes were treated successfully with a paramedian surgical approach, including 3 for which an inguinal approach was attempted first. An inguinal approach was successful for 3 pigs with inguinally retained testes and 1 with an abdominally retained testis. Standard castration techniques were used for normally descended and inguinally retained testes. Long-term follow-up was available for 34 pigs; minor complications were reported for 3 (9%). Pot-bellied pigs were significantly older than commercial-breed pigs. No other intergroup differences were found.


The paramedian surgical approach was successfully used for removal of abdominally retained testes in all pigs that underwent the procedure. The overall complication rate for cryptorchidectomy in the study sample was low.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association