Objective—To identify common errors in film and digital radiographs provided by referring veterinarians and determine the effect of such errors on the perceived diagnostic quality of image sets.
Sample—135 sets of radiographic images acquired by referring veterinarians for client-owned small animals evaluated at a university hospital.
Procedures—Sets of radiographs were prospectively collected and evaluated for proper performance of various radiographic technical variables including exposure, collimation, positioning, inclusion of all appropriate views, presence of artifacts, radiation safety, and labeling. Sets of radiographs were subjectively determined to be of diagnostic or nondiagnostic quality by 2 evaluators.
Results—The variables exposure, correct positioning, absence of artifacts, and acquisition of all appropriate views were significantly associated with a determination of diagnostic quality for radiograph sets. Correct patient labeling, radiation safety, and x-ray beam centering and collimation were not associated with a determination of diagnostic quality for radiograph sets. The number of categories with errors was significantly associated with identification of radiograph sets as having diagnostic or nondiagnostic quality. Digital radiographs had a significantly lower number of image artifacts and significantly higher frequency of proper labeling versus film radiographs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested the technical variables proper exposure, proper positioning, absence of artifacts, and acquisition of all appropriate views were important for acquisition of sets of radiographs of high diagnostic quality. Identification of these errors and adjustment of radiographic technique to eliminate such errors would aid veterinarians in obtaining radiographs of high diagnostic quality and may reduce misinterpretation.
To assess the time to completion, number of errors, and knot-holding capacity (KHC) for starting and ending square knots (SSKs and ESKs) of a continuous pattern and Aberdeen knots tied by veterinary students and to investigate student perceptions of knot security and knot-tying difficulty for the 3 knot types.
16 second-year veterinary students.
Students created 3 (4-throw) SSKs, 3 (5-throw) ESKs, and 3 (3 + 1 configuration) Aberdeen knots with 2-0 polydioxanone on a custom test apparatus. Time to complete each knot, the number of errors in each knot, and student ratings of knot-tying difficulty and confidence in knot security were recorded. Each knot was tested to failure on a uniaxial tensiometer to determine KHC and mode of failure. Variables of interest were compared by repeated-measures ANOVA or the Friedman test with post hoc pairwise comparisons.
Mean knot completion time for Aberdeen knots was significantly less than mean completion time for SSKs or ESKs. Mean KHC was significantly lower for ESKs than for SSKs; KHC for Aberdeen knots was not compared with these values because of methodological differences. Median error rate was higher for ESKs than for other knot types. Mean difficulty rating for Aberdeen knots was lower than that for ESKs. Most tested knots failed by breakage at the knot.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Aberdeen knots appeared to be easy for veterinary students to learn and were completed more rapidly and with fewer errors than ESKs. Including this type of knot in surgical skills curriculum for novices may be beneficial.