Objective—To determine the accuracy of 3-D and 2-D ultrasonography for quantification of tumor volume in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder.
Animals—10 dogs with biopsy-confirmed TCC.
Procedures—The urinary bladder of each dog was distended with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (5.0 mL/kg), and masses were measured via 3-D and 2-D ultrasonography. Masses were also measured via 3-D ultrasonography after bladders were distended with 2.5 and 1.0 mL of saline solution/kg. Subsequently, the bladder was deflated and distended with CO2 (5.0 mL/kg); CT was performed after IV contrast medium administration. Tumor volumes were calculated via 3-D ultrasonography, 2-D ultrasonography, and CT (reference method) and compared via ANOVA, Deming regression, and Bland-Altman plots. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess effects of bladder distension on 3-D tumor volume measurements. Repeatability of measurements was estimated via the coefficient of variation for each method.
Results—Repeatability was considered good for all 3 methods. There was no significant difference in tumor volume measurements obtained via 3-D ultrasonography at different degrees of urinary bladder distension. Results of Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots indicated excellent agreement between tumor volume measurement with 3-D ultrasonography and CT, but not between 2-D ultrasonography and CT.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tumor volume in dogs with TCC of the urinary bladder was accurately measured via 3-D ultrasonography. Use of 3-D ultrasonography can provide a less expensive and more practical method for monitoring response to treatment than CT and was more accurate than 2-D ultrasonography.
Objective—To evaluate tendon injuries in horses over a 16-week period by use of ultrasonography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Sample—Tendons of 8 young adult horses.
Procedures—The percentage of experimentally induced tendon injury was evaluated in cross section at the maximal area of injury by use of ultrasonography and MRI at 3, 4, 6, 8, and 16 weeks after collagenase injection. The MRI signal intensities and histologic characteristics of each tendon were determined at the same time points.
Results—At 4 weeks after collagenase injection, the area of maximal injury assessed on cross section was similar between ultrasonography and MRI. In lesions of > 4 weeks' duration, ultrasonography underestimated the area of maximal cross-sectional injury by approximately 18%, compared with results for MRI. Signal intensity of lesions on T1-weighted images was the most hyperintense of all the sequences, lesions on short tau inversion recovery images were slightly less hyperintense, and T2-weighted images were the most hypointense. Signal intensity of tendon lesions was significantly higher than the signal intensity for the unaltered deep digital flexor tendon. Histologically, there was a decrease in proteoglycan content, an increase in collagen content, and minimal change in fiber alignment during the 16 weeks of the study.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonography may underestimate the extent of tendon damage in tendons with long-term injury. Low-field MRI provided a more sensitive technique for evaluation of tendon injury and should be considered in horses with tendinitis of > 4 weeks' duration.