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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Fourteen cats were inoculated orally with 1 of 2 infective doses of Toxocara canis to induce eosin-ophilia. Cats were subsequently challenge exposed twice via intraperitoneal injection with 1 of 2 Tcanis antigen preparations. Peritoneal lavage was performed 2 days after antigenic challenge exposure, and eosinophils in the peritoneal lavage fluid were quantified.

None of the cats developed clinical signs of disease after infection. All cats developed peripheral eosinophilia after infection. Significant (P < 0.05) difference in mean eosinophil count from the lavage fluid was observed between lavage 1 (prechallengc exposure) and lavages 2 and 3 (postchallcnge exposure) in both groups of cats. Significant difference in eosinophil count was not found between cats given different doses of eggs. After initial challenge exposure, significantly (P < 0.05) more eosinophils were obtained from cats given antigen preparation 2 (prep-2) than from those given antigen prep-1. This difference was no longer observed after the second challenge exposure with higher doses of either antigen prep-1 or prep-2. In cats given antigen prep-2, significant difference was not found between lavages 2 and 3. However, in cats given antigen prep-1, eosinophil count was significantly (P = 0.005) greater in fluid obtained from lavage 3, compared with eosinophil count from lavage 2. Mean ± SEM percentage of eosinophils in the fluid from lavage 3 in all cats was 70.8 ± 2.2%. Other cell types included macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and mast cells.

Gross postmortem findings were mild. One- to 3-mm nodular white foci of inflammation were observed on the serosal surfaces of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and omentum. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed pulmonary artery hypertrophy (n = 4), eosinophilic peribronchitis and perivasculitis (n = 10), mild granulomatous interstitial nephritis (n = 6), interstitial pancreatitis (n = 1), focal lymphocytic myocarditis (n = 1), focal eosinophilic granulomatous hepatitis (n = 1), and eosinophilic hyperplasia of bone marrow (n = 14).

Large numbers of eosinophils could be harvested from the peritoneal cavity of cats inoculated orally with 500 embryonated T canis eggs and subsequently challenge-exposed intraperitoneally with preparations of parasite antigens. After the second challenge exposure, at least 108 eosinophils could be harvested from each cat, yielding eosinophils in the quantity required to begin isolation of granule constituents.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To evaluate 2 laparoscopic techniques for castration in horses.


Prospective, randomized trial.


6 sexually intact male ponies.


Ponies were anesthetized and placed in dorsal recumbency. By means of restricted randomization, 1 testis in each pony was selected to undergo in situ destruction (ie, vascular cauterization and ligation with the testis left in situ); the other testis was pulled back into the abdomen and removed. Baseline and stimulated testosterone concentrations were determined preoperatively and postoperatively. After euthanasia, the in situ testes were examined histologically.


There were no surgical complications. In all ponies, postoperative baseline and stimulated testosterone concentrations were consistent with castration. The testicular parenchyma of the testes that had been left in situ underwent coagulative necrosis.

Clinical Implications

In ponies and juvenile stallions, normally descended testes can be removed laparoscopically. Nonpalpable inguinal testes can be left in situ after laparoscopically ligating and transecting the testicular artery and vein. Additional experience with these approaches is necessary before their use can be recommended in mature stallions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:112–114)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Twelve Beagles were inoculated with concanavalin A, and after a mean ninefold increase in antibody titer, 1 mg of concanavalin A was infused into each renal artery of each dog to induce in situ immune complex glomerulonephritis. Starting 4 weeks after renal arterial infusion, 6 dogs were treated orally 3 times daily with 30 mg of 3-methyl-2 (3 pyridyl)-1-indoleoctanoic acid (CGS 12970)/ kg of body weight, a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor, and 6 dogs (control group) received a gelatin capsule 3 times daily. Endogenous creatinine clearance and 24-hour urinary excretion of protein and thromboxane B2 were determined for each dog prior to renal arterial infusion, at the initiation of treatment and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after initiation of treatment. In addition, methyoxy-3H inulin clearance was determined at initiation of treatment and 4 and 8 weeks later. Renal specimens were examined histologically at the initiation of treatment and 4 and 8 weeks later. Glomerular mononuclear profiles/μm3 were determined from at least 10 equatorially sectioned glomeruli from each dog. Paired t tests were used to compare mean values at the various time points to the respective mean baseline value and 2-sample t tests were used to evaluate differences between treatment groups.

At the start of treatment (4 weeks after renal arterial infusion of concanavalin A), histologic evaluation of renal specimens revealed glomerular epithelial crescent formation, mononuclear cell proliferation, and infiltration of neutrophils. Mononuclear cell profiles and urinary excretion of protein and thromboxane B2 were significantly increased, but endogenous creatinine clearance values were unchanged. Treatment with CGS 12970 did not affect endogenous creatinine clearance, methyoxy-3H inulin clearance, or glomeruli, however, CGS 12970 treatment significantly decreased urinary excretion of protein and thromboxane B2 when compared with values in the control group. These findings suggested that thromboxane has a role in the pathogenesis of established glomerulonephritis and that thromboxane synthetase inhibition treatment may be beneficial in dogs with established glomerulonephritis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period.

Design—Cohort study of ocular structures and retrospective case series of horses with and without HERDA.

Animals—The cohort portion of the study involved 10 Quarter Horses with HERDA and 10 Quarter Horses without HERDA; the retrospective case series involved 28 horses with HERDA and 291 horses without HERDA.

Procedures—Ophthalmic examinations, Schirmer tear tests, tonometry, corneal pachymetry, histologic examinations, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed in cohorts of Quarter Horses with and without HERDA. Records were reviewed to determine the incidence of corneal ulcers in horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period.

Results—Corneal thickness of horses with HERDA was significantly less than that of control horses, but tear production of horses with HERDA was significantly greater than that of control horses. Results of SEM revealed zones of disorganized, haphazardly arranged collagen fibrils in corneas of horses with HERDA that were not evident in corneas of control horses. The incidence of corneal ulcers was significantly greater for horses with HERDA than for horses without HERDA during the 4-year period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Alterations in corneal thickness, arrangement of collagen fibers, and incidence of corneal ulcers indicated that abnormalities in horses with HERDA were not limited to the skin.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association