Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for :

  • Author or Editor: James Carmalt x
  • Bone, Joint, and Cartilage x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search


OBJECTIVE To determine by use of an in vitro model the potential for translocating sufficient numbers of bacteria into a joint during arthrocentesis through cellulitic tissue to cause sepsis.

SAMPLE Culture media containing 4 concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus and needles of 3 sizes.

PROCEDURES Needles (22, 20, and 19 gauge) were inserted through Mueller-Hinton agar that contained known concentrations of S aureus (103,104,105, and 106 CFUs/mL). After a needle exited through the medium, any agar plug within the needle bore was ejected into a sterile syringe and the contaminated portion of the needle was harvested. Sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was used to emulsify the agar plug and wash the contaminated portion of the needle. The resulting solution was cultured to determine the number of bacterial CFUs that could be deposited into a joint during arthrocentesis through contaminated tissue.

RESULTS Needle gauge and bacterial concentration were both associated with the number of bacterial CFUs deposited after insertion through contaminated agar. Although all needle sizes were capable of bacterial translocation sufficient to cause septic arthritis, ORs for 20- and 22-gauge needles translocating > 33 CFUs of S aureus were significantly higher than the OR for a 19-gauge needle. The ORs for 20- or 22-gauge needles translocating > 33 CFUs of S aureus (the minimum population of S aureus known to cause joint sepsis) were 0.22.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this in vitro model indicated that caution should be used when performing arthrocentesis through cellulitic tissue.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To describe histologic changes in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of horses of various ages.


22 TMJs from cadavers of 11 horses.


Horses were categorized into 3 age groups (group 1, 2 to 10 years old [n = 3]; group 2, 11 to 20 years old [3]; and group 3, > 20 years old [5]). Each TMJ was sectioned into 5-mm slices, preserved in formalin, decalcified in formic acid, and routinely processed for histologic analysis. Joints were systematically assessed by use of previously described methods. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to examine the data.


The number of changes was significantly fewer and degree of changes was significantly less within the TMJs of group 1 horses, compared with those of group 3 horses. Comparison among groups revealed that the combination of temporal and mandibular scores for group 1 was significantly lower than for groups 2 or 3. Disk score did not differ significantly between groups 1 and 2, but disk scores of groups 1 and 2 were significantly lower than the disk score of group 3.


The assessed lesions were associated with osteoarthritis, and they accumulated in the TMJs as horses aged. In the absence of signs of pain manifested as changes in mastication, behavior, or performance, it would be difficult to determine the point at which accrued pathological changes represented the onset of clinically important osteoarthritis of the TMJs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To investigate the relationship between inflammatory responses of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint in clinically normal horses.

Animals—7 mature horses.

Procedures—In each horse, 1 TMJ and 1 MCP joint were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.0025 μg). The contralateral TMJ and MCP joint were injected with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Synovial fluid samples were collected from all 4 joints over 24 hours after injection. Concentrations of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, and total protein were measured via immunoassay. Horses were assessed for clinical signs of joint inflammation at each time point.

Results—Concentrations of interleukin-6 were not significantly different between LPS-injected MCP joints and TMJs at any time point. Transforming growth factor-β concentrations were significantly increased in MCP joints, compared with concentrations in TMJs, at 12 and 24 hours after injection. Tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations were significantly higher in LPS-injected TMJs than in LPS-injected MCP joints at 1 and 6 hours after injection. Total protein concentration did not differ significantly between LPS-injected MCP joints and TMJs. Injection of LPS induced clinical inflammation at all time points; additionally, 2 MCP joints (but no TMJs) had an inflammatory response to injection of saline solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The inflammatory response to LPS appeared to be attenuated more quickly in TMJs than in MCP joints of horses. The difference in response suggested that a lack of clinical osteoarthritis in the TMJ of horses could be attributable to a difference in cytokine response.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research