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To evaluate cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane (Sevo), compared with halothane (Hal), enflurane (Enf), and isoflurane (Iso).


24 healthy Beagles, randomly assigned to 4 groups of 6 dogs each.


Dogs under spontaneous ventilation were anesthetized with Sevo, Hal, Enf, or Iso. After minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of each anesthetic was determined, anesthesia was maintained at light (1 MAC), moderate surgical (1.5 MAC), and deep (2 MAC), stages and cardiopulmonary variables at conscious state (baseline) and each anesthesia stage were measured.


In dogs of the Sevo group, heart rate increased significantly from the baseline value at all anesthesia stages. Systemic vascular resistance during Sevo anesthesia decreased gradually with increasing anesthesia stage, which was accompanied by dose-dependent decreases in systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures. At 1.5 and 2 MAC Sevo, stroke index decreased slightly but significantly from the baseline value; however, cardiac index was unchanged because of the significant increase in heart rate. Respiratory rate decreased significantly at 2 MAC from that at 1 MAC Sevo. Tidal volume and dead space-to-tidal volume ratio were unchanged at all anesthesia stages of Sevo, resulting in significantly decreased expired and alveolar ventilation at 2 MAC, compared with values at 1 and 1.5 MAC Sevo. Pa CO 2 increased and pHa decreased significantly, depending on anesthesia stage; Pa O 2 increased significantly from baseline values, and remained constant because of inhalation of 100% O2.


Cardiovascular effects of Sevo were greater than those of Hal, similar to those of Iso, and less than those of Enf. Respiratory effects of Sevo were similar to those of Iso at all anesthesia stages, greater than those of Hal at 2 MAC, and less than those of Enf at 1.5 and 2 MAC. Up to the moderate surgical anesthesia stage, Sevo can be used safely in dogs undergoing spontaneous ventilation. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:885–890)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular (LV) volume obtained via a modified Simpson or Teichholz method with those obtained via dual-source CT (DSCT).

Animals—7 healthy Beagles.

Procedures—Each dog was anesthetized for DSCT; LV volume was determined from contrast-enhanced images of the LV lumen during all phases of contraction. Echocardiography was performed with dogs awake and anesthetized. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume, and ejection fraction were measured via a modified Simpson method and Teichholz method. Each dog was anesthetized twice with a 1-week interval between anesthetic sessions.

Results—Results obtained while dogs were anesthetized revealed that the modified Simpson method underestimated LV volume (mean ± SD EDV, 24.82 ± 2.38 mL; ESV, 12.24 ± 1.77 mL), compared with that estimated by the Teichholz method (EDV, 32.57 ± 2.85 mL; ESV, 14.87 ± 2.09 mL) or DSCT (EDV, 34.14 ± 1.57 mL; ESV, 16.71 ± 0.76 mL). Ejection fraction (modified Simpson method, 48.53% ± 4.24%; Teichholz method, 54.33% ± 4.26%; DSCT, 51.00% ± 2.71%) differed significantly among the 3 methods. Echocardiographic results obtained while dogs were awake revealed that EDV, ESV, and stroke volume differed significantly between the modified Simpson and Teichholz methods.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—LV volume determined via the Teichholz method was more similar to that determined via DSCT than was the LV volume determined via the modified Simpson method. The modified Simpson method underestimated LV volume, compared with that obtained via the Teichholz method, in both anesthetized and awake dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research