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  • Author or Editor: Hussni O. Mohammed x
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Objective—To elucidate the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes on dairy cattle farms by determining the prevalence of the organism in various samples.

Sample Population—Dairy cattle operations in central New York State.

Procedures—A repeated cross-sectional study design was used. Various samples were obtained from cattle (feces, composite udder milk, and udders), their environment (silage, feed bunks, water troughs, and floor bedding), inline milk filters, and bulk tank milk from 50 dairy farms. Samples were tested for L monocytogenes by use of a PCR assay with 2 steps of bacterial enrichment. Data were analyzed with mixed-effect logistic regression to control for the potential clustering of L monocytogenes on particular farms.

ResultsL monocytogenes was detected in composite milk, udder swab samples, and fecal samples at prevalences of 13%, 19%, and 43%, respectively. There was no significant clustering of the pathogen by farm. Listeria monocytogenes was more common in samples obtained from cattle and the environment during winter and summer versus the fall. The prevalence of L monocytogenes was twice as high in samples obtained from feed bunks, water troughs, and bedding, compared with that in samples obtained from silage (65%, 66%, 55%, and 30%, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceL monocytogenes was more prevalent in samples obtained from dairy cattle and their environment than in milk samples. Strategies to control the pathogen in dairy operations should focus on cow hygiene and sanitary milk harvesting on the farm.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine the effects of orally administered raltegravir in cats with experimentally induced ocular and respiratory feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) infection.


14 healthy 6-month-old unvaccinated specific pathogen–free cats.


On day 0, all cats were experimentally inoculated by topical application of 0.1 mL of a solution containing 106 plaque-forming units of FHV-1 strain FH2CS to the inferior conjunctival fornix of each eye. Cats were randomly assigned to receive either raltegravir (80 mg; n = 7) or lactose (250 mg; vehicle; 7), PO, every 12 hours for 14 days beginning on day 1. Cats were assigned clinical ocular and respiratory disease scores every other day from days 0 to 30. Conjunctival swab specimens were collected for detection of FHV-1 by virus isolation and real-time PCR assay at 3-day intervals from days 0 to 30. Confocal microscopy was performed on days 0 and 10 to assess corneal epithelial leukocyte infiltration. The assessed variables and duration of FHV-1 shedding were compared between the 2 treatment groups.


Cats in both groups developed moderate to severe conjunctivitis and ulcerative keratitis characteristic of FHV-1 infection. Median duration of FHV-1 shedding was shorter and signs of ocular and respiratory disease were less severe for raltegravir-treated cats than for vehicle-treated cats. However, the mean conjunctival FHV-1 titer and corneal epithelial leukocyte count did not differ between the 2 groups.


Results suggested orally administered raltegravir might be effective for alleviation of ocular and respiratory signs of FHV-1 infection in cats. (Am J Vet Res 2019;80:490–497)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research