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Changes in serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein (α1 AG) concentration in cattle with hepatic abscesses were observed, and function of α1 ag was evaluated, particularly its influence on cellular immune response. Test cattle (n = 4) were inoculated with Fusobacterium necrophorum, control cattle (n = 2) were inoculated with inactivated bacteria, and naturally affected cattle (n = 11) were found in a slaughterhouse.

Determination of α1 ag was made by use of a single radial immunodiffusion method. The action on lymphocyte blastogenesis was determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Cultured lymphocytes from healthy cattle were treated with variable concentrations of α1 ag purified from serum obtained from cattle with hepatic abscesses and suppression of blastogenesis stimulated by each of 3 mitogens was measured.

In cattle with experimentally induced abscesses, serum α1 ag concentration increased for 7 to 10 days after F necrophorum inoculation, its change being parallel to that of sialic acid. High concentration of α1 ag was found in naturally affected cattle and was highly correlated to sialic acid concentration. Suppression of lymphocyte blastogenesis in cattle with experimentally induced hepatic abscesses was highly correlated to serum α1 ag concentration.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Equine α1-acid glycoprotein (α1 ag) was isolated from equine serum by successive ammonium precipitation, anion- and cation-exchange chromatographies, and gel filtration. Purified equine α1 ag had a molecular weight of 46,000 ± 1,000, and contained 31.4% carbohydrate. Gel isoelectric focusing revealed an isoelectric point range of 2.8 to 3.7. With immunoelectrophoresis, it was found that α1 ag migrated to the α1-globulin region.

Single radial immunodiffusion was used for quantitative measurement of α1 ag in equine serum. In clinically normal foals, serum α1 ag was undetectable (≤ 20 ng/ml) in ≤ 7-day-old foals, but was detected by 14 days. The α1 ag concentration (mean ± sd) increased to reach mean adult values of 99.23 ± 26.90 μg/ml by 1 year of age. The α1 ag concentration in pregnant mares decreased at 2 to 3 months before parturition, then gradually increased until 1 day after parturition, when a brief decrease was observed. The concentration increased again at 2 weeks after foaling, then a decrease was observed, after which the α1 ag concentration increased again by 2 to 4 months after parturition.

The concentration of serum α1 ag quickly rose to peak values 2 to 3 days after castration and jejunojejunostomy in adult horses, returning to baseline values by 14 to 28 days after surgery. The α1 ag was concluded to be an acute-phase reactive protein in horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To detect localization of α1-acid glycoprotein (α1,-AG) antigens in the liver tissue of cattle by use of immunoperoxidase technique.

Sample Population

Liver specimens from 6 bovine fetuses, 2 healthy bovine neonates, 2 healthy adult cattle, 3 cattle with experimentally induced hepatic abscesses, and 2 cattle with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL).


3 cattle (with hepatic abscesses) were inoculated with a suspension of Fusobacterium necrophorum in the ruminal vein. Serum α1-AG concentration was determined by use of the single radial immunodiffusion method. Livers from fetuses, newborn calves, and adult or sick cattle were fixed in buffered 10% formalin, dehydrated in alcohol, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained by use of the avidin-biotin complex/immunoperoxidase technique.


Sites of localization of the α1-AG antigen positive reaction (AGPR) in the liver obtained from bovine fetuses, neonates, or sick cattle were different. In fetal and newborn calves, the AGPR was detected in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Intensity of the reaction varied in direct proportion to α1-AG serum concentration. In adult cattle, the AGPR was particularly intense in hepatocytes adjacent to abscesses or EBL-induced tumors.


The pattern of distribution of cells with AGPR in the liver varied, depending on severity of inflammation. In the cattle with EBL, whether the AGPR was attributable to inflammation could not be clarified, although suppression of immunologic response to tumors may have been a cause of the observed reaction. This association suggests that the glycoprotein may be synthesized, mainly in hepatocytes. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:725–728)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research