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  • Author or Editor: Herman J. Boermans x
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SUMMARY

An ion chromatographic method was used to simultaneously determine nitrate and nitrite ions in biological samples. Ultrafiltration was used to produce a proteinfree filtrate. Chloride interferences were eliminated by precipitation as the silver salt. Detection limits and average recoveries were 0.5 mg/L and 102% for nitrate and 0.2 mg/L and 78% for nitrite, respectively. Nitrate concentration was 2.1 ± 1.8 mg/L and 4.9 ± 0.8 mg/L in serum and ocular fluid of healthy cattle, respectively; nitrite was not detected.

A severe case of nitrate poisoning in cattle was described and used to study the concentrations of nitrate and nitrite in samples obtained under natural conditions. Nitrate concentration of acutely poisoned cattle was 35% lower in ocular fluid at 158.1 ± 51.4 mg/L, than in serum at 256.3 ± 113.4 mg/L. Nitrite was not detected, because of the long processing time (> 3 hours) required for samples obtained in the field. A gradual decrease in ocular fluid nitrate of 29.4% at 24 hours, 25.9% at 36 hours, 51.6% at 48 hours, and 73.2% at 60 hours was observed; however, concentrations remained diagnostically significant (73.2 mg/L) 60 hours after death. Twenty-four hours after poisoning, the serum nitrate concentration of severely ill (52.7 ± 51.9 mg/L) and moderately affected (12.4 ± 5.7 mg/L) cattle that survived was indicative of the severity of clinical signs previously observed. Nitrate in serum and ocular fluid was stable in samples stored for 24 hours at 23 C, 1 week at 4 C, and 1 month at −20 C.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the effects of feeding cereal-based diets that are naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins to dogs and assess the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) in prevention of Fusarium mycotoxicosis.

Animals—12 mature female Beagles.

Procedures—Dogs received each of 3 cereal-based diets for 14 days. One diet was uncontaminated (control diet), and the other 2 contained contaminated grains; one of the contaminated diets also contained 0.2% GMA. Contaminants included deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and fusaric acid. Food intake and nutrient digestibility, body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and clinicopathologic variables of the dogs were assessed at intervals during the feeding periods.

Results—Food intake and body weight of dogs fed the contaminated diet without GMA were significantly decreased, compared with effects of the control diet. Reductions in blood pressure; heart rate; serum concentrations of total protein, globulin, and fibrinogen; and serum activities of alkaline phosphatase and amylase as well as increases in blood monocyte count and mean corpuscular volume were detected. Consumption of GMA did not ameliorate the effects of the Fusarium mycotoxins. For the GMA-contaminated diet, digestibility of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid was significantly higher than that associated with the control diet, possibly because of physiologic adaptation of the recipient dogs to reduced food intake.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins can adversely affect dogs' feeding behaviors and metabolism. As a food additive, GMA was not effective in prevention of Fusarium mycotoxicosis in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research