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  • Author or Editor: Gregg M. Griffenhagen x
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To compare the efficacy and duration of action for perineural analgesia with liposomal bupivacaine (LB) versus bupivacaine hydrochloride (BHCl) in a sole-pressure induced model of forelimb lameness in horses.


6 healthy adult research horses.


In 1 randomly assigned forelimb, grade 3/5 lameness was induced by use of a sole-pressure lameness model. Objective lameness (vector sum [VS]) was determined with an inertial sensor system at 0, 1, 6, and 24 hours after lameness induction to evaluate the model. Mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) and objective lameness (VS and force platform kinetics) were recorded prior to and at 1, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after perineural anesthesia of the palmar nerves at the level of the proximal sesamoid bones with LB or BHCl in random order, with a 1-week washout period between crossover treatments. Data analysis was performed with mixed-model ANOVA.


When evaluating the lameness model, there was a decrease in lameness at 24 hours in at least 1 limb of each horse (7/12 limbs); thus, screw length was increased by 1 to 2 mm at each 24-hour interval to maintain lameness. Compared with results at baseline, horses treated with BHCl had significant improvements in median MNT and VS identified at only 1 hour after injection, whereas treatment with LB yielded significantly improved median MNT, VS score, and peak vertical force for up to 24 hours.


In this experimental model of forelimb lameness, LB provided longer analgesia when compared with BHCl and should be further investigated for treatment of pain in horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To describe a minimally invasive 3-portal laparoscopic approach for elective ovariohysterectomy and the outcome of that procedure in a population of goats.

DESIGN Descriptive clinical study.

ANIMALS 16 healthy client-owned goats.

PROCEDURES Food but not water was withheld from all goats for 24 hours before the procedure. Goats were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Three laparoscopic portals were created in the caudoventral portion of the abdomen, and the abdomen was insufflated to a maximum pressure of 10 mm Hg. A blunt-tip vessel sealer and divider device was used to transect the left and right mesovarium and mesometrium and uterus, and the resected tissue was removed from the abdomen. After hemostasis was verified, the portals were closed in a routine manner and anesthesia was discontinued. Goats were discharged from the hospital 24 hours after the procedure, and owners were contacted by telephone or email to obtain short- and long-term follow-up information by use of standardized questions.

RESULTS All procedures were performed by a surgeon and assistant surgeon. The procedure was not complex and was easily learned. No intraoperative complications were reported, and only 1 goat required rescue analgesia post-operatively. No other postoperative complications were recorded. Median surgery time was 43 minutes (range, 20 to 65 minutes). All owners were satisfied with the outcome of the procedure, and several perceived that the procedure improved goat behavior.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy was a viable alternative for elective sterilization of female goats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association