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Summary

Sheep given powdered Ferula communis variety brevifolia at dosage of 2.5 g/kg of body weight/d for 15 days developed classical clinical signs of intoxication: anorexia, somnolence, apparent weakness, and hemorrhage. Marked reduction of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors and prolongation of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were consistent with presence of ferulenol, a toxic coumarinic factor in the plant. Changes induced in the coagulation system developed by the second day of plant administration and were normal within 4 days after dosing was stopped. There was no evidence of primary liver damage or platelet malfunction. Of 6 intoxicated sheep, 2 died with only minimal evidence of hemorrhage.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Dynamics of plasma ferulenol concentration and its effect on the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors, prothrombin time (pt), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aptt) were determined in 4 sheep intoxicated individually with 600 g of powdered Ferula communis variety brevifolia (fcb) given in 8 doses at intervals of 6 hours. Ferulenol was detected in the plasma of all sheep at initial blood sample collection, 6 hours after the first dose of approximately 75 g of fcb was placed in the rumen. The last observed peak of approximately 20 μg/ml was detected at about 12 hours after the last of 8 doses, and the mean concentration then decreased to < 1 μg/ml during the next 70 hours. Maximal concentration of ferulenol and time for plasma clearance varied with individual sheep. The pt increased steadily to a maximum of 6 times normal about 70 hours after the last peak plasma ferulenol concentration and about 80 hours after fcb administration was stopped. The pt then returned to almost normal (ratio of 1.12) from the maximum (ratio of 6.12) within approximately 5 days. The aptt results generally paralleled the pt results, but the change was not as marked. Maximal pt and aptt ratios were animal - dependent and not always related to plasma ferulenol concentration. The activity of all the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors was depressed, but the variations were unique to each factor. Factor V, a vitamin K-independent coagulation factor actually had a brief period of increased plasma activity. We concluded that the effects on P, T aptt, and vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors induced in sheep intoxicated with fcb were consistent with the coumarinic structure of ferulenol, the intoxicating compound in fcb, which seems to have a short-term anticoagulation effect.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Cytogenetic evaluation was made on 353 Simmental cattle (166 male, 187 female) from 113 herds in 26 states. One hundred thirty-eight (39%) were found to be heterozygous-positive for the 14/20 centric fusion chromosomal translocation, including 41 (25%) males and 91 (52%) females. One submitted heparinized blood sample from a Simbrah bull was found to be positive for 14/20 and 1/29 centric fusions. Sampling, which was based on requests, was highly selective. Thus, the 39% prevalence found was not representative of 14/20 centric fusion in the national Simmental breed. On the basis of our findings, cytogenetic evaluation of breeding stock was consistent with modern management practice.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Blood and bile porphyrin concentrations were measured in cattle with protoporphyria and compared with those in human beings with the disease. Whereas the mean rbc porphyrin concentration in cattle was 18-fold greater than in human beings, the mean bile porphyrin concentration was only 78% greater. Sequential measurements over a 30-hour period in 1 animal with a bile fistula indicated that the ratio of total porphyrin to total bile acid in bile varied minimally. When the animal was given an iv infusion of taurocholate, the biliary excretion rate of porphyrin increased in parallel with that of bile acid, because of enhancement of bile flow.

Thus, in cattle with protoporphyria, the concentration of porphyrin in bile is low compared with that of porphyrin in rbc, in contrast with findings in human beings, and adequate amounts of bile acids are secreted to maintain efficient protoporphyrin excretion. This explains, in part, why hepatobiliary disease has not been observed in cattle with protoporphyria, but has been seen in human beings with the disease.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of Holstein bulls with chromosomal anomalies, particularly the 1/21 centric fusion (CF), at a commercial artificial insemination (AI) company in the United States.

Design—Cross-sectional cytogenetic prevalence study.

Animals—All 606 Holstein bulls at a commercial AI company were cytogenetically screened to detect CF, chimerism, and other chromosomal abnormalities.

Procedure—Lymphocytes from heparinized blood samples were cultured by standard cytogenetic techniques, and chromosome spreads were prepared for microscopic examination. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected by examining 10 chromosome spreads per bull. Pedigree analysis was performed.

Results—None of the bulls had any type of CF. However, 6 bulls were identified as chimeras (ie, contained lymphocytes with male [XY] and female [XX] chromosomes). One bull was sire or maternal grandsire to 85 of the bulls tested, and 739 of 1,212 (61%) sire and maternal-grandsire possibilities were accounted for by just 18 bulls.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of these results supports previous indications that CF is extremely rare in Holstein bloodlines available commercially via AI in the United States. However, chimeric bulls are more common, and they reportedly have decreased reproductive performance. Therefore, identification of chimeric sires in the AI facility reported here and the possibility of de novo onset of CF at any time indicates that early cytogenetic screening should be encouraged for prospective bulls intended for use in AI programs. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:65–67)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A total of 727 blood samples from female calves born co-twin to male calves were examined cytogenetically for freemartinism between 1978 and 1992. Six hundred calves (82.5%) were determined to be freemartins, and 127 (17.5%) were determined not to be freemartins. The percentage of calves determined not to be freemartins was substantially higher than the 8% reported for an unselected population of female co-twins. We concluded that some obvious freemartins were eliminated prior to submission of samples for confirmatory cytogenetic diagnosis, and that only a small percentage of the estimated 93,000 female calves born co-twin to male calves annually are so examined. Therefore, probably a large number of female co-twins that are not truly freemartins are sold to slaughter every year. We propose that obvious freemartins be identified by use of the vaginal-length test and that the remaining clinically questionable calves be differentiated cytogenetically. This combination of procedures could prevent unnecessary economic losses and preserve important genetic material.

Three animals with chromosomal anomalies were found during examination of samples for freemartinism. Cytogenetic evaluation for freemartinism thus offers the added value of simultaneous surveillance for cytogenetic aberrations in male and female cells of a sample.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

  • Elk infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis have clinical signs that are similar to those in infected cattle, but elk may die from the disease at a younger age than is commonly reported in cattle. Histologic lesions in elk are similar to classic lesions of paratuberculosis in cattle.

  • Diagnostic techniques such as bacterial culture of feces or tissues and microscopic examination of tissues are useful in confirming a diagnosis made by the agar gel immunodiffusion test.

  • Husbandry methods that can limit transmission of the infection include use of feed and water troughs that can be cleaned with tuberculocidal disinfectant, fencing off or draining areas of standing water, removal of manure from feeding areas, and prompt and continued isolation of elk with clinical signs consistent with paratuberculosis.

  • The elk farming industry, characterized by frequent exchange and sale of elk, may benefit from increased veterinary attention to detection and control of paratuberculosis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Fever, limb edema, and laminitis were observed in horses 18 to 36 hours after they consumed hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana) under field and experimental conditions. Clinical signs were not observed in all horses that had ingested the plant. Diagnosis in the field cases was limited to observation of clinical signs and evidence of plant ingestion in hay or on pasture. In most cases, clinical remission was observed 2 to 4 days after empirical treatment, removal of the plant source, or both.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association