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  • Author or Editor: Géraldine E. Bolen x
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Objective—To assess the impact of cycles of freezing and thawing on magnetic resonance (MR) images (obtained by use of a 3-T magnet) of equine feet examined ex vivo.

Sample—9 forelimbs from 9 horse cadavers.

Procedures—9 forefeet underwent MR imaging first at ambient temperature within 12 hours after the horses' death and then after each freezing-thawing cycle. Three digits underwent freezing and thawing (at 4°C for 36 hours) 2 times, 3 digits underwent freezing and thawing (at 4°C for 36 hours) once and rescanning after 24 hours at ambient temperature, and 3 digits underwent freezing and thawing at ambient temperature for 24 hours once. Images of the digits obtained prior to freezing were subjectively compared with images obtained after freezing and thawing. Changes in the signal-to-noise ratio between examinations were assessed.

Results—Overall image quality was considered unchanged except for the hoof capsule. Quantitative analysis revealed signal-to-noise ratio changes in bone marrow, soft tissues, and hoof capsule induced with both thawing processes. The signal-to-noise ratio in the sy-novial recess of the distal interphalangeal joint significantly increased as a result of thawing at4°C.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although overall image quality was considered unchanged except for the hoof capsule, results suggested that changes induced in cadaver limbs following freezing and thawing, which are probably attributable both to modified and inhomogeneous temperature distribution and direct tissue damage, may alter the reliability of signal intensity in ex vivo MR examinations.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To describe functional and anatomic changes of the lower urogenital tract of healthy male dogs during the sexually immature period and up to 2 years of age by urodynamic and morphometric assessment.


6 sexually intact male Beagle littermates.


Dogs underwent electromyography-coupled urodynamic tests, CT-assisted retrograde urethrography, prostatic washes, and blood sampling monthly from 4 through 12 months of age and then at 3-month intervals. Urodynamic and morphometric variables and serum canine prostate–specific esterase concentrations were analyzed by statistical methods.


Integrated pressure of the urethra was significantly increased beginning at 8 months of age, compared with earlier time points. Urethral pressure peak amplitudes varied among anatomic regions. During bladder filling, few electromyographic signals were concurrent with urethral pressure peaks; these were most commonly detected in the penile portion of the urethra. Urethral length and prostate gland volume were significantly greater from 7 to 24 months of age than at younger ages. Urethral length was approximately 26 to 27 cm after 9 months, and prostate gland volume was approximately 11 to 12 cm after 11 months of age. Serum canine prostate–specific esterase concentrations correlated with prostate gland volume. Urinary bladder threshold volume was significantly increased at 6 months of age, compared with that at 4 months, with a maximum of 197.7 mL at 24 months.


Urethral resistance was acquired at approximately 8 months of age, when growth of the lower urinary tract was incomplete. Electromyographic and integrated pressure measurement results and the distribution and amplitude of urethral pressure peaks highlighted the potential role of the prostate gland and possibly the bulbocavernosus muscles in control of continence.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research