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Summary

Gram-negative bacterial infections were documented in 6 neonatal New World camelids (5 llamas and 1 alpaca). The organisms isolated from blood before death or from multiple organs after death were Escherichia coli (n = 3), Actinobacillus sp (n = 1), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1). Only 2 crias survived, and 1 became blind secondary to retinal detachment and ocular inflammation, which developed after treatment for bacterial infection.

Abnormal events during the perinatal period (prematurity, dystocia, cesarean section, weak at birth) were reported in all 6 crias. Signs of depression, convulsions, and/or coma were observed in all animals. Diarrhea and respiratory distress were also noticed in the 3 crias that died shortly after admission.

Serum immunoglobulins were assessed, but without the benefit of a stall-side test specific for llama immunoglobulins. All crias were suspected to have poor transfer of maternal immunoglobulins. Hemograms and serum biochemical values prior to the initiation of treatment were obtained on 5 of the 6 crias. Total nucleated cells ranged from 1,400 to 23,100 cells/μl. Four of the 5 crias had a left shift, and 2 crias had toxic neutrophils. Serum glucose concentrations, measured in 5 of 6 crias, ranged from 83 to 293 mg/dl. Serum creatinine values were high in 2 of 5 crias, 1 of which had acute tubular necrosis. Three crias with high serum electrolyte (sodium, chloride, or potassium) values subsequently died. Arterial blood gas values were assessed in 3 crias, 1 of which had respiratory alkalosis and mild hypoxemia.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Historical, physical, and clinicopathologic findings in 25 septicemic calves were examined to further characterize the clinical features of naturally induced bovine neonatal septicemia. Owners often reported single organ disease, but physical examination revealed multiple organ disease in more than half the calves. A third of the calves were admitted as representative of a herd problem. Laboratory findings were variable, but commonly included changes in the differential WBC count and plasma fibrinogen concentration. Low serum immunoglobulin concentrations were found in approximately half the calves.

Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism, but gram-positive infections were found in 10%, and polymicrobial infections in 28%, of the calves. Previous antimicrobial administration did not appear to affect culture yield. At necropsy, lesions were seen in multiple organs in most calves. The respiratory and gastrointestinal systems were most commonly affected. Few of the calves had umbilical infections. The survival rate was poor (< 12%).

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To explore the extent to which veterinary colleges and schools accredited by the AVMA Council on Education (COE) have incorporated specific courses related to animal welfare, behavior, and ethics.

DESIGN Survey and curriculum review.

SAMPLE

All 49 AVMA COE-accredited veterinary colleges and schools (institutions).

PROCEDURES The study consisted of 2 parts. In part 1, a survey regarding animal welfare, behavior, and ethics was emailed to the associate dean of academic affairs at all 49 AVMA COE-accredited institutions. In part 2, the curricula for the 30 AVMA COE-accredited institutions in the United States were reviewed for courses on animal behavior, ethics, and welfare.

RESULTS Seventeen of 49 (35%) institutions responded to the survey of part 1, of which 10 offered a formal animal welfare course, 9 offered a formal animal behavior course, 8 offered a formal animal ethics course, and 5 offered a combined animal welfare, behavior, and ethics course. The frequency with which courses on animal welfare, behavior, and ethics were offered differed between international and US institutions. Review of the curricula for the 30 AVMA COE-accredited US institutions revealed that 6 offered a formal course on animal welfare, 22 offered a formal course on animal behavior, and 18 offered a formal course on animal ethics.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that AVMA COE-accredited institutions need to provide more formal education on animal welfare, behavior, and ethics so veterinarians can be advocates for animals and assist with behavioral challenges.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To characterize serum copper status of cows and heifers in beef cow-calf herds throughout the United States and to evaluate use of copper supplements in those herds.

Design

Cross-sectional survey.

Animals

2,007 cows and heifers from 256 herds in 18 states.

Procedures

Producers participating in a health and management survey conducted as part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System voluntarily allowed serum samples to be obtained from cows and heifers for determination of copper concentration. Results were categorized as deficient, marginally deficient, or adequate. The proportion of cattle and herds (on the basis of mean value of the tested cattle) in each category was determined. Copper concentrations were compared between herds that reportedly used copper supplements and those that did not.

Results

Overall, 34 of 2,007 (1.7%) cows and heifers were deficient in copper, and 781 (38.9%) were marginally deficient. In each region, at least a third of the cattle were deficient or marginally deficient. For herds, 92 of 256 (35.9%) were marginally deficient, and 22 (0.8%) were deficient. Approximately half of the producers reported use of copper supplements, but a sizeable proportion of those producers' cattle and herds were classified as marginally deficient or deficient.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Copper deficiency is not restricted to a single geographic region of the United States. Copper deficiency can persist despite reported use of supplements by producers. Veterinarians dealing with beef cow-calf herds that have problems consistent with copper deficiency should not rule out copper deficiency solely on the basis of geographic region or reported use of copper supplements for the herd. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1828–1832)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare use of 4 disease severity scoring systems to predict bacteremia (yes vs no) and outcome (survived vs died or culled) in dairy cows with acute coliform mastitis (ACM).

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—99 dairy cows with ACM.

Procedures—Cows were classified as having mild, moderate, or severe disease with a scoring system based on systemic disease signs alone (systemic severity score [SSS] system), a system based on local disease signs alone (local severity score [LSS] system), and 2 previously described systems based on a combination of local and systemic signs (local-systemic score 1 [LS1] and local-systemic score 2 [LS2] systems). Test performance was calculated to determine whether a severe disease classification could be used to predict bacteremia or outcome.

Results—21%, 53%, 63%, and 38% of cows were classified as having severe disease with the SSS, LSS, LS1, and LS2 systems, respectively. For both bacteremia and outcome, sensitivity was highest for the LS1 system, but specificity and accuracy were highest for the SSS system. Examination of a scatterplot of true-positive rate versus false-positive rate for each of the scoring systems indicated that the SSS and LS2 systems were similar in their ability to correctly identify cows with bacteremia or an adverse outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the SSS scoring system was better for identifying cows with bacteremia or an adverse outcome than was the LSS system and that the LS1 and LS2 systems were intermediate in their discriminatory abilities.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the proportion of adult cattle that change test status when an ELISA for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) is used to assay samples collected twice at variable intervals and to determine whether cows with an initial strong positive result were more likely to maintain positive status, compared with all cows with an initial positive result.

Design—Cross-sectional observational study.

Animals—3,757 adult dairy cattle.

Procedure—Serum samples were obtained twice from cattle at intervals ranging from 77 to 600 days between collections. Samples were tested with an ELISA for detection of antibodies to MAP.

Results—Of 157 cattle with initial positive results (value for the sample divided by the value for positivecontrol serum [S/P] ≥ 0.25), 62 (39.5%) had negative results for the second sample. Of 71 cattle with an initial S/P value ≥ 0.40, 13 (18.3%) had a negative result (S/P < 0.25) for the second sample. Of 33 cattle with an initial S/P ≥ 0.70, 3 (9.1%) had a negative result (S/P value < 0.25) for the second sample. Interval between collection of samples did not affect results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Many cows changed ELISA status between samples collected at variable intervals. Cows with an initial high S/P value (≥ 0.70) were more likely to maintain positive status than cows classified as positive on the basis of cutoff values of ≥ 0.25 or ≥ 0.40. Veterinarians should expect variability in ELISA results when repeated testing of cattle is used as part of an MAP control program. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1685–1689)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate biosecurity practices of cowcalf producers.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample Population—2,713 cow-calf operations were used in phase 1 of the study, and 1,190 cow-calf operations were used in phase 2.

Procedure—Producers were contacted for a personal interview between Dec 30, 1996 and Feb 3, 1997 regarding their management practices. Noninstitutional operations with 1 or more beef cows were eligible to participate in the study. Producers who participated in the first phase of the study and who had ≥ 5 beef cows were requested to continue in the study and were contacted by a veterinarian or animal health technician who administered further questionnaires. All contacts for the second phase of the study were made between Mar 3, 1997 and Apr 30, 1997. Additional data on use of various vaccines, testing of imported cattle for brucellosis, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, bovine viral diarrhea, and tuberculosis as well as potential for feed contamination were collected during the second phase of the study.

Results—Producers commonly engaged in management practices that increased risk of introducing disease to their cattle such as importing cattle, failing to quarantine imported cattle, and communal grazing. Producers inconsistently adjusted for the increased risk of their management practices by increasing the types of vaccines given, increasing the quarantine time or proportion of imported animals quarantined, or increasing testing for various diseases in imported animals.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cow-calf herds are at risk for disease exposure from outside sources when cattle are introduced to the herd, and producers do not always adjust management practices such as vaccination schedules and quarantine procedures appropriately to minimize this risk. Veterinary involvement in education of producers regarding biosecurity risks and development of rational and economical biosecurity plans is needed. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:185–189)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To report clinical findings for New World camelids with uterine torsion and to compare results of 3 methods of correction.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

11 llamas and 3 alpacas with 20 uterine torsions.

Procedure

Information concerning history, clinical signs, management, and postpartum complications was retrieved from medical records. Information concerning subsequent reproductive performance was obtained by telephone interview of owners.

Results

Uterine torsion was corrected by celiotomy (n = 7), transvaginal manipulation (5), or rolling the dam (8). Direction of 19 of 20 torsions was clockwise when viewed from the rear. Retention of fetal membranes was reported for 5 camelids that underwent celiotomy, but was not reported in camelids after nonsurgical correction. The uterus prolapsed in 1 llama that underwent celiotomy and in another that underwent the rolling technique. Although 2 camelids that underwent celiotomy subsequently failed to conceive, all camelids treated by nonsurgical techniques conceived.

Clinical Implications

Uterine torsion in camelids may be diagnosed by methods similar to those used in cattle. Surgical and nonsurgical methods can be used to correct torsion, and postpartum complications are rare when torsion is corrected by a nonsurgical method. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:600–602)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association