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  • Author or Editor: Frank J. M. Verstraete x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine patterns of alveolar bone loss (periodontitis) and other lesions evident on fullmouth survey radiographs of cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—147 cats.

Procedure—Full-mouth radiographs were evaluated for evidence and severity of alveolar bone loss, odontoclastic resorption lesions (ORL), retained roots, missing teeth, signs of endodontic disease secondary to periodontitis, and apical resorption.

Results—106 (72%) cats had some degree of periodontitis, 100 (68%) were missing teeth, 98 (67%) had ORL, 78 (53%) had expansion of the buccal alveolar bone at 1 or more canine teeth, 75 (51%) had retained roots, 48 (33%) had apical resorption, and 12 (8%) had signs of endodontic disease secondary to periodontitis. Cats < 4 years old were not significantly more likely than the general population to have normal alveolar bone height. Prevalence of ORL increased with age, but cats ≥ 13 years old were less likely than the general population to have moderate or severe generalized periodontitis. Purebred cats were not significantly more likely to have periodontitis or ORL than mixed-breed cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that periodontitis is common in cats and that horizontal bone loss is the most common radiographic pattern of alveolar bone loss. Purebred cats were not more likely than mixed-breed cats to have ORL or periodontitis, but when they did have periodontitis, it was more likely to be moderate to severe. Cats with ORL were less likely than cats without ORL to have normal alveolar bone height and more likely to have severe focal vertical bone loss. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:230—234)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether odontoclastic resorption lesions were associated with radiographic evidence of periapical lucencies in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—265 feline dental patients.

Procedure—Full-mouth radiographs were examined for evidence of odontoclastic resorption lesions, periapical lucencies, periodontitis, and fractured teeth.

Results—Odontoclastic resorption lesions affecting 567 teeth were identified in 161 (60.8%) cats. Periapical lucencies were identified in 53 teeth in 35 cats. Periapical lucencies were most commonly associated with fractured teeth (25 teeth with periapical lucencies) and severe periodontitis (21 teeth). None of the periapical lucencies appeared to be specifically associated with resorption lesions. Prevalence of periapical lucencies in cats with resorption lesions was not significantly different from prevalence in cats without.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that although odontoclastic resorption lesions are common in cats, pulpal involvement associated with these lesions does not appear to be associated with development of radiographically detectable periapical lucencies. Crown amputation with intentional root retention may, therefore, be a suitable alternative to extraction in selected cats with odontoclastic resorption lesions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1866–1869)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate results of root canal treatment in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Sample Population—127 tooth roots in 64 dogs.

Procedure—Radiographs obtained before surgery, immediately after surgery, and during follow-up examinations after surgery were evaluated by 2 individuals. Treatment was considered successful if the periodontal ligament space was normal and possible preoperative root resorption, if present, had ceased. Treatment was considered to show no evidence of failure if possible preoperative root resorption had ceased but a preexisting periapical lesion had remained the same or only decreased in size and not complete resolved. Treatment was considered to have failed if a periapical lesion or root resorption developed subsequent to endodontic treatment, if a preexisting periapical lesion had increased in size, or if possible preoperative root resorption appeared to continue after endodontic treatment.

Results—Follow-up time ranged from 1 to 60 months (mean, 13 months). Treatment was classified as successful for 87 (69%) roots, as showing no evidence of failure for 33 (26%) roots, and as having failed for 7 (6%) roots. The success rate was lower for canine teeth than for maxillary fourth premolar teeth. Roots with a preexisting periapical lucency or preexisting root resorption had lower success rates. The use of intracanal medication and the method and quality of obturation were not associated with outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that root canal treatment offers a viable option for salvage of periodontally sound but endodontically diseased teeth in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:775–780)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of tooth resorption in dogs and to evaluate whether a classification system for tooth resorption in humans is applicable in this species.

Animals—224 dogs > 1 year old admitted for periodontal treatment or other dental procedures in 2007

Procedures—Full-mouth radiographs of all dogs were reviewed for evidence of tooth resorption. Tooth resorption was classified in accordance with radiographic criteria described for use in humans. Patient signalment and concurrent dental conditions were recorded and tabulated.

Results—Tooth resorption was detected in 120 of 224 (53.6%) dogs and 943 of 8,478 (11.1%) teeth. The classification system for use in humans was applicable in 908 of 943 (96.3%) affected teeth. Tooth resorption was more frequent among older and large-breed dogs; no significant differences were found among sex categories. The 2 most common types of tooth resorption were external replacement resorption (77/224 [34.4%] dogs and 736/8,478 [8.7%] teeth) and external inflammatory resorption (58/224 [25.9%] dogs and 121/8,478 [1.4%] teeth). External cervical root surface resorption was detected in 13 of 224 (5.8%) dogs; external surface resorption was detected in 10 of 224 (4.5%) dogs, and internal inflammatory resorption and internal surface resorption were detected in 9 of 224 (4.0%) and 1 of 224 (0.4%) dogs, respectively. Internal replacement resorption was not detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The classification of tooth resorption in humans was applicable to tooth resorption in dogs. Resorption lesions, in general, and external replacement and external inflammatory resorption, in particular, were frequently detected in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine applicability of the 2007 American Veterinary Dental College (AVDC) classification method for determining extent of tooth resorption in dogs.

Animals—224 dogs > 1 year old admitted for periodontal treatment or other dental procedures in 2007.

Procedures—Full-mouth radiographs of all dogs were reviewed for evidence of tooth resorption. Tooth resorption in dogs was classified in accordance with the radiographic criteria described for use in human teeth and, when applicable, the guidelines described in the 2007 AVDC classification method.

Results—851 of 943 (90.2%) affected teeth met the radiographic characteristics of 1 of the 5 stages of tooth resorption described by the AVDC classification method. Among tooth resorption types described for human teeth, the AVDC classification method was totally applicable (100%) in 17 teeth with external surface resorption, 21 teeth with external replacement resorption, and 736 teeth with external cervical root surface resorption, but it was applicable in only 56 of 121 (46.3%) teeth with external inflammatory resorption and none of the teeth with internal resorption.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The AVDC classification method was useful to describe the extent of tooth resorption in dogs, but it did not reflect the radiographic patterns and location of lesions. The AVDC classification method was applicable in some, but not all, of the teeth with various resorption types in dogs. The AVDC classification method could be adapted best to lesions that have radiographic patterns of external replacement resorption and external cervical root surface resorption.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare dental radiographic findings in cats with and without feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS).

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—101 cats with FCGS (cases) and 101 cats with other oral diseases (controls).

Procedures—Controls were age- and treatment date–matched with cases. Conventional full-mouth dental radiographic views were evaluated for distribution, pattern, and severity of alveolar bone loss (periodontitis), tooth resorption, buccal bone expansion, tooth fractures, and retained roots.

Results—All cases and 77 (76%) controls had periodontitis; differences in extent and severity of periodontitis were significant, with semigeneralized or generalized and moderate or severe periodontitis in 78 (77%) and 93 (92%) cases, respectively, and 28 (28%) and 38 (38%) controls, respectively. The pattern of alveolar bone loss in cases was dominated by horizontal bone loss, with a nonsignificant increase in vertical bone loss, compared with that of controls. Cases were more likely than controls to have external inflammatory root resorption (49 [49%] vs 25 [25%]) and retained roots (57 [56%] vs 28 [28%]). Fewer dental fractures occurred in cases (14 [14%]) than in controls (35 [35%]). There were no differences between cases and controls in breed, sex, or presence of feline resorptive lesions or buccal bone expansion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that FCGS was associated with more widely distributed and severe periodontitis, with a higher prevalence of external inflammatory root resorption and retained roots than other oral diseases. Full-mouth radiographic views are indicated for cats with FCGS to diagnose the extent of associated periodontitis, reveal external inflammatory root resorption, and identify retained roots.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the diagnostic value of 2 intraoral bisecting angle radiographic views in comparison with periodontal probing for the assessment of periodontal attachment of the canine teeth in dogs.

Study Population—466 canine teeth from 117 dogs.

Procedure—Periodontal probing measurements were recorded, and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were calculated at the mesial, buccal, distal, and lingual (or palatal) surfaces on each canine tooth. Occlusal and lateral radiographs of the canine teeth were obtained. Alveolar margin height (AMH) was measured at the same 4 surfaces. Values for AMH and CAL were compared on the basis of tooth surface, dental arch, and radiographic view.

Results—The AMH at the mesial and distal surfaces of the mandibular canine teeth was measurable on the lateral view and was significantly correlated with CAL. Similar results were found for the mesial and distal surfaces of the maxillary canine teeth. Buccal and lingual AMH were measured on the mandibular occlusal radiographic view, and values were significantly correlated with CAL, but only the buccal AMH could be assessed on the occlusal radiographic view of the maxilla with values that correlated significantly with CAL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The lateral radiographic view is suitable for evaluating periodontal attachment at the mesial and distal surfaces of the canine teeth in dogs. The occlusal radiographic view is suitable for assessing buccal surfaces as well as the lingual surface of mandibular canine teeth but not the palatal surface of maxillary canine teeth in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:255–261)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine elemental composition of teeth with and without odontoclastic resorption lesions (ORL) in cats.

Sample Population—Normal teeth from 22 cadaver cats and ORL-affected teeth from 21 cats admitted to the veterinary hospital for dental treatment.

Procedure—An electron microprobe was used to analyze weight percentages of calcium, phosphorus, fluorine, sodium, magnesium, sulfur, potassium, and iron in enamel, dentin, and cementum.

Results—Calcium and phosphorus were the most abundant elements. Fluorine, sodium, and magnesium combined were < 5% and sulfur, potassium, and iron combined were < 0.1% of total elemental composition. In enamel of normal teeth, a significant sex-by-jaw location interaction was seen in mean (± SD) phosphorus content, which was higher in mandibular teeth of females (17.64 ± 0.41%) but lower in mandibular teeth of males (16.71 ± 0.83%). Mean iron content in dentin of normal teeth was significantly lower in mandibular teeth than maxillary teeth (0.014 ± 0.005% vs 0.023 ± 0.019%). Mean enamel sodium content was significantly higher (0.77 ± 0.046% vs 0.74 ± 0.025) and mean enamel iron content was significantly lower (0.017 ± 0.008% vs 0.021 ± 0.005%) in ORL-affected teeth, compared with normal teeth. In cementum, mean fluorine content was significantly lower (2.98% ± 0.27 vs 2.99 ± 0.20%) and mean magnesium content was significantly lower (0.54 ± 0.13% vs 0.60 ± 0.13%) in ORLaffected teeth, compared with normal teeth.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of our study establish baseline mineral content of enamel, dentin, and cementum for normal teeth in cats. Minimal differences in mineral content of enamel and cementum of normal and ORL-affected teeth were detected. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:546–550)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To systematically characterize the morphology of cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate in dogs.

ANIMALS 32 client-owned dogs with clefts of the lip (n = 5), palate (23), or both (4) that had undergone a CT or cone-beam CT scan of the head prior to any surgical procedures involving the oral cavity or face.

PROCEDURES Dog signalment and skull type were recorded. The anatomic form of each defect was characterized by use of a widely used human oral-cleft classification system on the basis of CT findings and clinical images. Other defect morphological features, including shape, relative size, facial symmetry, and vomer involvement, were also recorded.

RESULTS 9 anatomic forms of cleft were identified. Two anatomic forms were identified in the 23 dogs with cleft palate, in which differences in defect shape and size as well as vomer abnormalities were also evident. Seven anatomic forms were observed in 9 dogs with cleft lip or cleft lip and palate, and most of these dogs had incisive bone abnormalities and facial asymmetry.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The morphological features of congenitally acquired cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate were complex and varied among dogs. The features identified here may be useful for surgical planning, developing of clinical coding schemes, or informing genetic, embryological, or clinical research into birth defects in dogs and other species.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research