To describe outcomes of small- and toy-breed dogs with a congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (IHPSS) treated with percutaneous transvenous coil embolization (PTCE).
20 small- and toy-breed dogs with an IHPSS.
All dogs underwent CT angiography for shunt evaluation as well as PTCE. Medical records were reviewed for pertinent data, and owners and primary veterinarians were contacted for long-term follow-up information.
Dogs ranged from 1.5 to 10.0 kg (mean ± SD, 6.32 ± 2.57 kg) in weight. The equipment used to perform PTCE tended to be smaller than that previously described for larger breed dogs. Intra- and postoperative complication rates were 20% (4/20) and 5% (1/20), respectively, and included hypotension, bradycardia, hypercapnia, ventricular premature contractions, hypothermia, and regurgitation. Dogs were discharged a median of 3 days (range, 1 to 3 days) after surgery, and all dogs survived to discharge. Clinical signs resolved in 95% (19/20) of the dogs a median of 21 days after the procedure. One- and 2-year survival rates were 92%. Three dogs had died by the time of data collection; 2 of these dogs died of causes related to the IHPSS 267 and 1,178 days, respectively, after the procedure.
Percutaneous transvenous coil embolization was a safe and effective option for treatment of IHPSS in small- and toy-breed dogs and offered a minimally invasive alternative to open surgical techniques. Complication and survival rates in this cohort were similar to or better than those reported in previous studies evaluating PTCE and open surgical techniques for treatment of IHPSS in dogs.
To provide updated information on the distribution of histopathologic types of primary pulmonary neoplasia in dogs and evaluate the effect of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in dogs with pulmonary carcinoma.
Medical records of dogs that underwent lung lobectomy for removal of a primary pulmonary mass were reviewed, and histopathologic type of lesions was determined. The canine lung carcinoma stage classification system was used to determine clinical stage for dogs with pulmonary carcinoma.
Pulmonary carcinoma was the most frequently encountered tumor type (296/340 [87.1%]), followed by sarcoma (26 [7.6%]), adenoma (11 [3.2%]), and pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (5 [1.5%]); there was also 1 plasmacytoma and 1 carcinosarcoma. Twenty (5.9%) sarcomas were classified as primary pulmonary histiocytic sarcoma. There was a significant difference in median survival time between dogs with pulmonary carcinomas (399 days), dogs with histiocytic sarcomas (300 days), and dogs with neuroendocrine tumors (498 days). When dogs with pulmonary carcinomas were grouped on the basis of clinical stage, there were no significant differences in median survival time between dogs that did and did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy.
Results indicated that pulmonary carcinoma is the most common cause of primary pulmonary neoplasia in dogs; however, nonepithelial tumors can occur. Survival times were significantly different between dogs with pulmonary carcinoma, histiocytic sarcoma, and neuroendocrine tumor, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the relative incidence of these various histologic diagnoses. The therapeutic effect of adjuvant chemotherapy in dogs with pulmonary carcinoma remains unclear and warrants further investigation.