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Abstract

Objective—To compare the bursting strength of a vessel sealant device (VSD) with that of an encircling suture on uterine horns and bodies from dogs.

Sample—Uteri from 24 shelter dogs with unknown reproductive histories.

Procedures—Uterine horns and bodies were allocated to groups to be sealed with suture or a VSD. Uteri were then infused with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution until the seals burst or the uteri reached a maximal pressure of 300 mm Hg. Variables recorded included dog age, uterine body and horn diameter, and maximal pressure.

Results—The median (range) bursting pressure reached in sealed uterine horns was 300 (0 to 300) mm Hg for the VSD group and 300 (200 to 300) mm Hg for the suture group. Within the VSD group, seals of 2 of 3 uterine horns with a diameter ≥ 9 mm burst before intraluminal pressure reached 100 mm Hg, compared with 1 of 21 uterine horns with a diameter < 9 mm. The median bursting pressure for uterine bodies was 237 (0 to 300) mm Hg for the VSD group versus 300 (175 to 300) mm Hg for the suture group. Within the VSD group, seals in uterine bodies with a diameter ≥ 9 mm failed at a significantly lower pressure (125 [0 to 125]) mm Hg than those with a diameter < 9 mm (275 [125 to 300]) mm Hg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The failure pressure for both sealing techniques was high, which indicated that the VSD may be a safe instrument for sealing the uterine horn in dogs. Given the low mean bursting pressure for seals in uterine bodies with large diameters, the VSD cannot be recommended for sealing uterine bodies ≥ 9 mm in diameter.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures of intestinal anastomoses with and without serosal patch supplementation in dogs.

Sample—Healthy small intestine segments from cadavers of 2 dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study.

Procedures—12 enterectomy constructs were created by anastomosis of intestinal segments with a standard simple continuous suture pattern. Half of the constructs were randomly selected for additional serosal patch support. Leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were measured in and compared between patch-supplemented and nonsupplemented constructs.

Results—Mean ± SD leakage pressure was significantly greater for the patch-supplemented anastomoses (81.8 ± 6.7 mm Hg) than for the nonsupplemented anastomoses (28.0 ± 6.7 mm Hg). Maximum intraluminal pressures were not significantly different between the groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serosal patch–supplemented anastomoses were able to sustain a significantly higher pressure before leakage than were nonsupplemented anastomoses in intestinal specimens from canine cadavers. The serosal patch supplementation may protect against leakage immediately after enterectomy in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate fluid pressures generated via common wound-flushing techniques.

Sample Population—24 combinations of bottles, needles, a syringe, and a bag.

Procedures—12 medically trained individuals used the following devices to forcefully expel fluid as for wound flushing: full and half-full 1-L and 500-mL bottles with holes in the cap made with 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-gauge needles; a 35-mL syringe with the same needle sizes; and a 1-L bag placed in a cuff pressurized to 300 mm Hg, with the same needle sizes. Fluid expulsion pressures were measured and compared.

Results—The highest pressure generated with the bottle was 3.90 — 1.30 psi (mean — SD) with a 16-gauge needle and a full 1-L bottle. The highest pressure generated with the 35-mL syringe was 18.40 — 9.80 psi with a 16-gauge needle. The lowest pressure generated with the 35-mL syringe was 16.70 — 6.50 psi with an 18-gauge needle. The bag under pressure generated a pressure of 7.3 — 0.1 psi with a 16-gauge needle. Needle size did not have a significant effect.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Solution bottles of any size and needle gauge do not meet the requirement for satisfactory flushing pressure of 7 to 8 psi. Use of a 35-mL syringe can produce pressure substantially > 7 to 8 psi, which could damage tissues. The most consistent delivery method to generate 7 to 8 psi was use of a 1-L plastic bag within a cuff pressurized to 300 mm Hg.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate anatomic landmarks to define the ideal suture placement location to achieve appropriate and consistent arytenoid cartilage abduction via unilateral cricoarytenoid lateralization (UCL) in dogs.

Sample—6 cadaveric canine larynges.

Procedures—Laryngeal airway resistance (LAR) was determined for each specimen before (baseline) and after suture placements with the epiglottis open and closed. To achieve UCL, suture was placed through the cricoid cartilage just caudal to the cricoarytenoid articulation (suture placement position [SPP] 1), one-fourth of the distance caudally between the cricoarytenoid and cricothyroid articulations (SPP 2), and three-fourths of the distance caudally between the cricoarytenoid and cricothyroid articulations (SPP 3). The LAR was again calculated after tensioning of each suture separately.

Results—With a closed epiglottis, median LAR was 30.0, 20.4, 11.4, and 3.3 cm H2O/L/s at baseline and SPPs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After UCL at SPP 1, LAR with the epiglottis closed was not significantly different from that at baseline. With an open epiglottis, median LAR was 2.0, 0.4, 0.2, and 0.0 cm H2O/L/s at baseline and SPPs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After UCL at SPPs 1, 2, or 3, LAR with an open epiglottis was significantly lower than that at baseline.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that placement of suture through the cricoid cartilage at the caudal border of the cricoarytenoid articulation was appropriate to sufficiently reduce LAR without increasing the risk of aspiration pneumonia through overabduction of the arytenoid cartilage.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures for a novel suture material with pressures for comparable suture material when used in closure of intestinal anastomoses in canine cadavers.

Sample—Healthy intestines from cadavers of dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study.

Procedures—18 anastomoses were performed on intestinal sections within 72 hours after dogs were euthanized and intestinal samples collected. Anastomoses were performed with a simple continuous suture pattern. Leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were measured and recorded for 6 control segments and 18 anastomosed sections. A barbed glycomer 631 suture (size 4–0 United States Pharmacopeia [USP]) was compared with glycomer 631 sutures (sizes 3–0 and 4–0 USP). Results for leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were compared via an ANOVA.

Results—The barbed glycomer 631 suture material leaked at a significantly higher pressure than did the comparable glycomer 631 suture materials. Maximum intraluminal pressures were not significantly different among the suture materials.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Barbed glycomer 631 4–0 USP suture material was as effective as glycomer 631 suture materials and may be a safe alternative for use in closure of enterectomies in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate changes in pH of peritoneal fluid associated with CO2 insufflation during laparoscopy in dogs.

Animals—13 client-owned dogs and 10 purpose-bred teaching dogs.

Procedures—Laparotomy was performed on control dogs; peritoneal fluid pH was mea-sured at time of incision of the abdominal cavity (time 0) and 30 minutes later. Laparoscopic insufflation with CO2 was performed and routine laparoscopic procedures conducted on the teaching dogs. Insufflation pressure was limited to 12 mm Hg. Intraperitoneal fluid pH was measured by use of pH indicator paper at 4 time points. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed at the same time points.

Results—Peritoneal fluid pH did not change significantly between 0 and 30 minutes in the control dogs. For dogs with CO2 insufflation, measurements obtained were a mean of 8.5, 24.5, 44.5, and 72.0 minutes after insufflation. The pH of peritoneal fluid decreased signifi-cantly between the first (7.825 ± 0.350) and second (7.672 ± 0.366) time point. Blood pH decreased significantly between the first (7.343 ± 0.078), third (7.235 ± 0.042), and fourth (7.225 ± 0.038) time points. The PaCO2 increased significantly between the first (39.9 ± 9.8 mm Hg) and fourth (54.6 ± 4.4 mm Hg) time points. Base excess decreased significantly between the first and all subsequent time points.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pneumoperitoneum attributable to CO2 insufflation caused a mild and transient decrease in peritoneal fluid pH in dogs. Changes in peritoneal fluid associated with CO2 insufflation in dogs were similar to those in other animals.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate a percutaneous, continuous gastric decompression technique for dogs involving a temporary T-fastener gastropexy and self-retaining decompression catheter.

ANIMALS 6 healthy male large-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency with slight left-lateral obliquity. The gastric lumen was insufflated endoscopically until tympany was evident. Three T-fasteners were placed percutaneously into the gastric lumen via the right lateral aspect of the abdomen, caudal to the 13th rib and lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle. Through the center of the T-fasteners, a 5F locking pigtail catheter was inserted into the gastric lumen and attached to a device measuring gas outflow and intragastric pressure. The stomach was insufflated to 23 mm Hg, air was allowed to passively drain from the catheter until intraluminal pressure reached 5 mm Hg for 3 cycles, and the catheter was removed. Dogs were hospitalized and monitored for 72 hours.

RESULTS Mean ± SD catheter placement time was 3.3 ± 0.5 minutes. Mean intervals from catheter placement to a ≥ 50% decrease in intragastric pressure and to ≤ 6 mm Hg were 2.1 ± 1.3 minutes and 8.4 ± 5.1 minutes, respectively. After catheter removal, no gas or fluid leakage at the catheter site was visible laparoscopically or endoscopically. All dogs were clinically normal 72 hours after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The described technique was performed rapidly and provided continuous gastric decompression with no evidence of postoperative leakage in healthy dogs. Investigation is warranted to evaluate its effectiveness in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research