Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Edward R. Atwill x
  • Infectious Disease x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search


Objective—To evaluate seasonal patterns and risk factors for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces in a beef cattle herd and determine strain diversity and transition in E coli over time by use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

Sample Population—456 samples of freshly passed feces collected over a 1-year period from cattle in a range-based cow-calf operation located in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California.

Procedures—E coli O157:H7 was recovered from feces by use of immunomagnetic separation and 2 selective media. Virulence factors were detected via reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates were subtyped with MLVA and PFGE. Prevalence estimates were calculated and significant risk factors determined. A dendrogram was constructed on the basis of results of MLVA typing.

Results—Overall prevalence estimate for E coli O157:H7 was 10.5%, with the prevalence lowest during the winter. Mean temperature during the 30 days before collection of samples was significantly associated with prevalence of E coli O157:H7 in feces. Nineteen MLVA and 12 PFGE types were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A seasonal pattern was detected for prevalence of E coli O157:H7 in feces collected from beef cattle in California. Subtyping via MLVA and PFGE revealed a diversity of E coli O157:H7 strains in a cow-calf operation and noteworthy turnover of predominant types. Given the importance of accurately determining sources of contamination in investigations of disease outbreaks in humans, MLVA combined with PFGE should be powerful tools for epidemiologists. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1339–1347)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To elucidate the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes on dairy cattle farms by determining the prevalence of the organism in various samples.

Sample Population—Dairy cattle operations in central New York State.

Procedures—A repeated cross-sectional study design was used. Various samples were obtained from cattle (feces, composite udder milk, and udders), their environment (silage, feed bunks, water troughs, and floor bedding), inline milk filters, and bulk tank milk from 50 dairy farms. Samples were tested for L monocytogenes by use of a PCR assay with 2 steps of bacterial enrichment. Data were analyzed with mixed-effect logistic regression to control for the potential clustering of L monocytogenes on particular farms.

ResultsL monocytogenes was detected in composite milk, udder swab samples, and fecal samples at prevalences of 13%, 19%, and 43%, respectively. There was no significant clustering of the pathogen by farm. Listeria monocytogenes was more common in samples obtained from cattle and the environment during winter and summer versus the fall. The prevalence of L monocytogenes was twice as high in samples obtained from feed bunks, water troughs, and bedding, compared with that in samples obtained from silage (65%, 66%, 55%, and 30%, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceL monocytogenes was more prevalent in samples obtained from dairy cattle and their environment than in milk samples. Strategies to control the pathogen in dairy operations should focus on cow hygiene and sanitary milk harvesting on the farm.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research