Objective—To evaluate the performance of a chemiluminescent endotoxin activity assay in horses with colic and healthy horses.
Animals—20 horses with colic and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS group), 8 horses with colic with no SIRS (NSIRS group), and 20 healthy horses.
Procedures—Venous blood was collected into EDTA blood collection tubes after completion of a physical examination, and a chemiluminescent endotoxin activity assay was performed within 60 minutes of collection. Medical or surgical interventions and outcome were recorded for each horse.
Results—Mean ± SE endotoxin activity was 0.16 ± 0.05 for healthy horses, 0.18 ± 0.07 for the NSIRS group, and 0.53 ± 0.05 for the SIRS group and was significantly different among the groups. Mean endotoxin activity was significantly higher in the SIRS group than in the NSIRS group and the healthy group. No significant difference between the healthy and NSIRS groups was present. The higher the measured endotoxin activity, the more likely it was for horses to be euthanized.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The chemiluminescent endotoxin assay was easy to use, required a short time to perform, could be completed at the patient's side, and with some modifications, may be a useful component in the clinical assessment and prognostication of horses with colic.
Objective—To compare the diagnostic quality of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid acquired from healthy dogs by manual aspiration via polyethylene tubing (MAPT) and via suction pump aspiration (SPA) with a suction trap connection.
Animals—12 healthy adult Beagles.
Procedures—BAL was performed with bronchoscopic guidance in anesthetized dogs. The MAPT was performed with a 35-mL syringe attached to polyethylene tubing wedged in a bronchus via the bronchoscope's biopsy channel. The SPA was performed with 5 kPa of negative pressure applied to the bronchoscope's suction valve via a suction trap. The MAPT and SPA techniques were performed in randomized order on opposite caudal lung lobes of each dog. Two 1 mL/kg lavages were performed per site. Samples of BAL fluid were analyzed on the basis of a semiquantitative quality scale, percentage of retrieved fluid, and total nucleated and differential cell counts. Results were compared with Wilcoxon signed rank tests.
Results—Percentage of BAL fluid retrieved (median difference, 16.2%), surfactant score (median difference, 1), and neutrophil count (median difference, 74 cells/μL) were significantly higher for SPA than for MAPT. A higher BAL fluid epithelial cell score was obtained via MAPT, compared with that for samples obtained via SPA (median difference, 1).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that in healthy dogs, SPA provided a higher percentage of BAL fluid retrieval than did MAPT. The SPA technique may improve the rate of diagnostic success for BAL in dogs, compared with that for MAPT. Further evaluation of these aspiration techniques in dogs with respiratory tract disease is required.