Objective—To determine current population characteristics
of, clinical findings in, and survival times for
cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
Animals—260 cats with HCM.
Procedure—Information was obtained from the medical
records. Cats were classified into 1 of 4 clinical
groups (congestive heart failure [CHF] group, arterial
thromboembolism [ATE] group, syncope group, or
cats without clinical signs [subclinical group]) on the
basis of the primary clinical signs at the initial examination.
Results—120 cats were classified in the CHF group,
43 in the ATE group, 10 in the syncope group, and 87
in the subclinical group. Antecedent events that may
have precipitated CHF included IV fluid administration,
anesthesia, surgery, and recent corticosteroid
administration. Median survival time was 709 days
(range, 2 to 4,418 days) for cats that survived > 24
hours. Cats in the subclinical group lived the longest
(median survival time, 1,129 days; range, 2 to 3,778
days), followed by cats in the syncope group (654
days; range, 28 to 1,505 days), cats in the CHF group
(563 days; range, 2 to 4,418 days), and cats in the ATE
group (184 days; range, 2 to 2,278 days). Causes of
death included ATE (n = 56), CHF (49), sudden death
(13), and noncardiac causes (27). In univariate analyses,
survival time was negatively correlated with left
atrial size, age, right ventricular enlargement, and thoracentesis.
Cats with systolic anterior motion of the
mitral valve lived longer than cats without this
echocardiographic finding. In multivariate analyses,
only age and left atrial size remained significant predictors
of survival time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although
overall survival time for cats with HCM was similar to
earlier reports, survival times for cats with CHF or
ATE were longer than previously reported. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2002;220:202–207)
Objective—To determine clinical characteristics and
clinicopathologic findings, including results of pericardial
fluid analysis, and determine the outcome associated
with pericardial effusion caused by cardiac lymphoma
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedure—Medical records of affected dogs were
reviewed for echocardiographic findings, radiographic
findings, results of pericardial fluid analysis,
clinicopathologic findings, treatment protocols,
Results—Pericardial effusion was detected by
echocardiography in all 12 dogs, and lymphoma was
detected by cytologic examination of the effusion
(11/12 dogs) or histologic examination of pericardium
(3/12). Large-breed dogs were overrepresented;
median weight was 40.5 kg (89.1 lb). Most hematologic
and biochemical changes were mild and nonspecific.
Survival time for dogs treated with combination
chemotherapeutic agents was 157 days and for
dogs that did not receive chemotherapy survival time
was 22 days. This difference was not significant, but
several dogs had long-term survival.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cardiac lymphoma
is an uncommon cause of pericardial effusion,
and results suggest that cardiac lymphoma does not
always warrant the poor prognosis of other stage V,
substage b lymphomas. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;
Objective—To determine duration of administration,
complications, and frequency of aortic thromboembolism
associated with administration of low molecular
weight heparin (dalteparin) in cats.
Animals—57 cats treated with dalteparin.
Procedure—Data were recorded from the medical
records of cats treated with dalteparin, and owners
were contacted by telephone for information regarding
ease of administration and possible adverse
Results—Dalteparin was easily administered by owners.
Median dose was 99 U/kg (45 U/lb) once or twice
daily. Bleeding complications were infrequent. Of 43
cats with cardiomyopathy that received owner-administered
dalteparin for a median follow-up time of 172
days, 8 cats developed documented or possible arterial
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dalteparin
was easily administered by owners and was well tolerated
by cats. Whether dalteparin administration can
reduce the frequency or severity of arterial thromboembolism
is not yet known. (J Am Vet Med Assoc