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  • Author or Editor: Donald E. Carrier x
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SUMMARY

Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (hscas), an anticaking agent for mixed feed, was added to the diets of growing wethers (mean body weight, 34.0 kg) and was evaluated for its ability to diminish the clinical signs of aflatoxicosis. The experimental design consisted of 4 treatment groups of 5 wethers each, consuming concentrations of 0 g of hscas and 0 g of aflatoxin (af)/kg of feed (control; group 1); 20 g of hscas/kg (2.0%; group 2), 2.6 mg of af/kg (group 3); or 20 g of hscas (2.0%) plus 2.6 mg of af/kg (group 4). Wethers were maintained in indoor pens, with feed and water available ad libitum for 42 days. Lambs were observed twice daily and weighed weekly, and blood samples were obtained every 2 weeks for hematologic and serum biochemical analyses and for measurement of mitogen-induced lymphocyte-stimulation index. At the termination of the study, wethers were euthanatized and necropsied. Body weight gain was diminished significantly (P < 0.05) by consumption of 2.6 mg of af/kg of feed, whereas body weight of lambs consuming hscas plus af did not differ from that of control wethers. The af-alone treatment increased serum aspartate transaminase and γ-glutamyltransferase activities, prothrombin time, and cholesterol, uric acid, and triglyceride values and decreased albumin, glucose, and urea nitrogen values, and urea-to-creatine ratio. A 27% decrease in lymphocyte stimulation index, increased spleen weight (as a percentage of body weight), and decreased liver weight were induced by af-alone treatment. Results indicate that hscas may be a high-affinity sorbent for af, that 2.6 mg of af/kg of feed induces signs of aflatoxicosis in growing wethers, that lambs may not be as resistant to the effects of af as previously thought, that 2.0% hscas can substantially reduce the toxic effects of 2.6 mg of af/kg, and that sorbent compounds may offer a novel approach to the preventive management of aflatoxicosis in livestock.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Ochratoxin A (oa) was incorporated in the diets of growing gilts (mean body weight, 20.1 kg) at a concentration of 2.5 mg of oa/kg of feed and was fed continuously for 35 days. Humoral and cell-mediated immunologic measurements were evaluated to determine the effects of oa on immune function in swine. Cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity to phytohemagglutinin (pha), delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin, pha-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis, interleukin-2 production, total and isotype immunoglobulin concentrations, antibody response to chicken rbc, and macrophage activation were used to evaluate immune function. Gilts treated with oa had reduced cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to pha, reduced delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin, decreased stimulation index for lymphoblastogenesis, decreased interleukin-2 production when lymphocytes were stimulated with concanavalin A, and decreased number and phagocytic activity of macrophages. Differences were not observed for total and isotype immunoglobulin concentrations, or humoral hemagglutination (chicken rbc) titer. These data indicate that oa may suppress cell-mediated immune response in growing swine.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research