Objective—To determine whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are expressed in periocular squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of horses.
Sample—Biopsy specimens of SCCs from 46 horses.
Procedures—Pathology records were searched retrospectively for biopsy specimens of periocular SCCs obtained from horses. Slides of the specimens were reviewed histologically to confirm the SCC diagnosis and stained for EGFR and HER2 by immunohistochemical methods. For both EGFR and HER2, the immunohistochemical staining intensity and percentage of stain-positive cells on the slides were determined.
Results—43 of 46 (93%) SCCs were immunoreactive for EGFR. The median score for EGFR staining intensity was 4 (range, 2 to 12), and the median number of mitotic figures was 8 mitotic figures/10 hpfs (range, 0 to 34 mitotic figures/10 hpfs). Mitotic index was not correlated with the percentage of EGFR stain–positive cells or staining intensity. Of the 43 EGFR-immunoreactive SCCs, 38 had stain present primarily in the cytoplasm and 5 had stain equally distributed between the cytoplasm and cell membranes. Thirty-five of 46 (76%) SCCs were immunoreactive for HER2. Mitotic index was not correlated with the percentage of HER2 stain–positive cells or staining intensity. Of the 35 HER2-immunoreactive SCCs, the stain was present primarily in the cytoplasm and 7 had stain equally distributed between the cytoplasm and cell membranes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that most periocular SCCs of horses expressed EGFR and HER2, which suggested that equine periocular SCCs might respond to treatment with EGFR inhibitors.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the tear film osmolality and electrolyte composition in healthy horses.
ANIMALS 15 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES Each horse was manually restrained, and an ophthalmic examination, which included slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and a Schirmer tear test, was performed. Tear samples were collected from both eyes with microcapillary tubes 3 times at 5-minute intervals. The tear samples for each horse were pooled, and the osmolality and electrolyte concentrations were measured. The mean (SD) was calculated for each variable to establish preliminary guidelines for tear film osmolality and electrolyte composition in healthy horses.
RESULTS The mean (SD) tear film osmolality was 283.51 (9.33) mmol/kg, and the mean (SD) sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium concentrations were 134.75 (10), 16.3 (5.77), 3.48 (1.97), and 1.06 (0.42) mmol/L, respectively. The sodium concentration in the tear film was similar to that in serum, whereas the potassium concentration in the tear film was approximately 4.75 times that of serum.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided preliminary guidelines with which tear samples obtained from horses with keratopathies can be compared. Measurement of tear film osmolality in these horses was easy and noninvasive. The tear film concentration of divalent cations was greater than expected and was higher than the divalent cation concentrations in the tear films of rabbits and humans. These data may be clinically useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of hyperosmolar ocular surface disease in horses.
Objective—To determine the effects of topically applied 2% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ophthalmic solution on aqueous humor flow rate (AHFR) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in clinically normal dogs.
Animals—21 clinically normal dogs.
Procedures—A randomized longitudinal crossover design was used. Following acquisition of baseline IOP (morning and evening) and AHFR (afternoon only) data, dogs were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups and received 1 drop of either 2% THC solution or a control treatment (olive oil vehicle) to 1 randomly selected eye every 12 hours for 9 doses. The IOPs and AHFRs were reassessed after the final treatment. Following a washout period of ≥ 7 days, dogs were administered the alternate treatment in the same eye, and measurements were repeated.
Results—Mean ± SD IOPs in the morning were 15.86 ± 2.48 mm Hg at baseline, 12.54 ± 3.18 mm Hg after THC treatment, and 13.88 ± 3.28 mm Hg after control treatment. Mean ± SD IOPs in the evening were 13.69 ± 3.36 mm Hg at baseline, 11.69 ± 3.94 mm Hg after THC treatment, and 12.13 ± 2.99 mm Hg after control treatment. Mean IOPs were significantly decreased from baseline after administration of THC solution but not the control treatment. Changes in IOP varied substantially among individual dogs. Mean ± SD AHFRs were not significantly different from baseline for either treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topical application of 2% THC ophthalmic solution resulted in moderate reduction of mean IOP in clinically normal dogs. Further research is needed to determine efficacy in dogs with glaucoma.
Objective—To determine ocular tissue drug concentrations after topical ocular administration of 0.3% ciprofloxacin and 0.5% moxifloxacin in ophthalmologically normal horses.
Animals—24 ophthalmologically normal adult horses.
Procedures—0.3% ciprofloxacin and 0.5% moxifloxacin solutions (0.1 mL) were applied to the ventral conjunctival fornix of 1 eye in each horse as follows: group 1 (n = 8) at 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours; group 2 (8) at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 10 hours; and group 3 (8) at 0, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 14 hours. Tears, cornea, and aqueous humor (AH) were collected at 8, 14, and 18 hours for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Drug concentrations were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results—Median (25th to 75th percentile) concentrations of ciprofloxacin for groups 1, 2, and 3 in tears (μg/mL) were 53.7 (25.5 to 88.8), 48.5 (19.7 to 74.7), and 24.4 (15.4 to 67.1), respectively; in corneal tissue (μg/g) were 0.95 (0.60 to 1.02), 0.37 (0.32 to 0.47), and 0.48 (0.34 to 0.95), respectively; and in AH were lower than the limit of quantification in all groups. Concentrations of moxifloxacin for groups 1, 2, and 3 in tears (μg/mL) were 188.7 (44.5 to 669.2), 107.4 (41.7 to 296.5), and 178.1 (70.1 to 400.6), respectively; in corneal tissue (μg/g) were 1.84 (1.44 to 2.11), 0.78 (0.55 to 0.98), and 0.77 (0.65 to 0.97), respectively; and in AH (μg/mL) were 0.06 (0.04 to 0.08), 0.03 (0.02 to 0.05), and 0.02 (0.01 to 0.04), respectively. Corneal moxifloxacin concentrations were significantly higher in group 1 than groups 2 and 3.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After topical ocular administration, fluoroquinolones can reach therapeutic concentrations in tears and corneal tissue of horses, even when there is an intact epithelium.
OBJECTIVE To describe qualitative blinking patterns and determine quantitative kinematic variables of eyelid motion in ophthalmologically normal horses.
ANIMALS 10 adult mares.
PROCEDURES High-resolution videography was used to film blinking behavior. Videotapes were analyzed for mean blink rate, number of complete versus incomplete blinks, number of unilateral versus bilateral blinks, and subjective descriptions of blinking patterns. One complete blink for each horse was analyzed with image-analysis software to determine the area of corneal coverage as a function of time during the blink and to calculate eyelid velocity and acceleration during the blink.
RESULTS Mean ± SD blink rate was 18.9 ± 5.5 blinks/min. Blinks were categorized as minimal incomplete (29.7 ± 15.6%), moderate incomplete (33.5 ± 5.9%), complete (30.8 ± 13.1%), and complete squeeze (6.0 ± 2.8%); 22.6 ± 9.0% of the blinks were unilateral, and 77.3 ± 9.1% were bilateral. Mean area of exposed cornea at blink initiation was 5.89 ± 1.02 cm2. Mean blink duration was 0.478 seconds. Eyelid closure was approximately twice as rapid as eyelid opening (0.162 and 0.316 seconds, respectively). Deduced maximum velocity of eyelid closure and opening was −16.5 and 7.40 cm/s, respectively. Deduced maximum acceleration of eyelid closure and opening was −406.0 and −49.7 cm/s2, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Kinematic variables of ophthalmologically normal horses were similar to values reported for humans. Horses had a greater percentage of complete squeeze blinks, which could increase tear film stability. Blinking kinematics can be assessed as potential causes of idiopathic keratopathies in horses.