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SUMMARY

The effects of single iv injections of sodium bicarbonate (0.5 mEq/kg of body weight, 1 mEq/kg, 2 mEq/kg, and 4 mEq/kg) on serum osmolality, serum sodium, chloride, and potassium concentrations, and venous blood gas tensions in 6 healthy cats were monitored for 180 minutes.

Serum osmolality increased and remained significantly (P < 0.05) increased for 120 minutes in cats given 4 mEq of sodium bicarbonate/kg. Serum sodium was increased significantly (P < 0.05) for 30 minutes in cats given 4 mEq of sodium bicarbonate/kg. Serum sodium decreased and remained significantly (P < 0.05) decreased for 120 minutes in cats given 1 g of 20% mannitol/kg, and serum osmolality was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased at 30 and 60 minutes. Serum chloride decreased significantly (P < 0.05) for 10 minutes in cats given 1 mEq of sodium bicarbonate/kg, and was significantly decreased for 30 minutes in cats given 2 mEq and 4 mEq of sodium bicarbonate/kg. Serum chloride decreased and remained significantly (P < 0.05) decreased for 30 minutes in cats given 1 g of 20% mannitol/kg. Serum sodium and serum osmolality did not change significantly (P < 0.05) in cats given 4 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride/kg.

Serum potassium decreased significantly (P < 0.05) for 10 minutes in cats given 1 mEq of sodium bicarbonate/kg, and for 120 minutes in cats given 2 mEq/kg or 4 mEq/kg. There was a significantly (P < 0.05) greater decrease in serum potassium that lasted for 30 minutes after giving sodium bicarbonate at the dosage of 4 mEq/kg, compared with other dosages given. Serum potassium did not change significantly in cats given 1 g of 20% mannitol/kg, but was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased 10 minutes following 4 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride/kg.

Sodium bicarbonate infusion significantly (P < 0.05) increased venous blood pH and plasma bicarbonate concentration in all cats. The magnitude and duration of these changes were significantly greater following administration of sodium bicarbonate at dosages of 2 mEq/kg and 4 mEq/kg. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in Pco2 were associated only with the highest dosage of sodium bicarbonate (4 mEq/kg). Base excess increased significantly (P < 0.05) in all cats following sodium bicarbonate infusion. There were significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in base excess lasting 30 minutes following administration of sodium bicarbonate at dosages of 2 mEq/kg and 4 mEq/kg. Significant (P < 0.05) changes in venous blood pH, Pco2 , or bicarbonate were not observed in cats given 4 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride/kg, or in cats given 1 g of 20% mannitol/kg. Base excess was significantly (P < 0.05) increased for 10 minutes in cats given 1 g of 20% mannitol/kg.

As expected, 4 mEq of sodium bicarbonate/kg induced the most time- and dosage-related effects. Caution should be used when administering sodium bicarbonate iv to cats at dosages > 2 mEq/kg, because of the potential for important acid-base and electrolyte changes.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Exogenous creatinine clearance, urinary electrolyte excretions, calcium and phosphorus balance, serum cholesterol concentration, arterial blood pressure, and body weight were evaluated in dogs with chronic renal failure that were fed 2 commercial diets. Nine dogs ranging in age from 1 to 15 years were identified as having mild to moderate chronic renal failure (crf, exogenous creatinine clearance = 0.5 to 2.13 ml/kg of body weight/min). These dogs and a group of 10 clinically normal controls were fed a diet containing 31% protein for 8 weeks at which time hematologic and biochemical evaluations and clearance studies were performed. All dogs then were fed a phosphorus-restricted diet containing 16% protein and then reevaluated after 8 weeks.

The dogs in this study had hematologic and biochemical abnormalities typical of crf. Urine absolute and fractional excretion of electrolytes was higher in dogs with crf than in controls and was affected by diet. Serum cholesterol concentration was higher in dogs with crf and increased in those dogs after feeding the low protein diet. Changes in dietary sodium intake did not affect arterial blood pressure. The phosphorus-restricted diet did not affect serum amino terminal parathyroid hormone concentration in either group. Control dogs lost body weight, whereas dogs with crf gained weight when fed the low protein diet.

We concluded that dogs with mild to moderately severe crf have the same biochemical abnormalities and response to dietary restriction of protein and phosphorus as has been previously reported in dogs with experimentally induced crf. Restriction of dietary sodium may not decrease arterial blood pressure in some dogs with crf. Dogs with crf may be predisposed to hypercholesterolemia when fed restricted protein commercial diets, and reduction of dietary phosphorus intake may be inadequate to control renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs with crf.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Amino acid profiles and serum albumin and serum total protein concentrations were evaluated in dogs with renal disease. Nine dogs ranging in age from 1 to 15 years were identified as having mild to moderate chronic renal failure (crf; exogenous creatinine clearance, 0.5 to 2.13 ml/kg of body weight/min). These dogs and a group of 10 clinically normal control dogs, were fed a diet containing 31% protein for 8 weeks, at which time serum and urine imino acid assays and clearance studies were performed. All dogs then were fed a diet containing 16% protein for 3 weeks and then reevaluated.

Chronic renal failure was associated with mild abnormalities in serum concentrations of amino acids. When fed the higher protein diet, dogs with crf had lower serum concentrations of glutamine, leucine, proline, and serine and higher serum concentrations of cystathionine and 3-methylhistidine than clinically normal control dogs. When fed the low protein diet, dogs with crf had lower serum serine concentrations and higher serum concentrations of cystathionine, phenylalanine, and 3-methylhistidine. Urine excretion of amino acids in all dogs on both diets was low, and dogs with crf had lower renal clearances of 3-methylhistidine than control dogs. There were no significant differences in concentrations of serum albumin and total solids between either group, regardless of diet.

We concluded that dogs with mild to moderately severe crf have mild abnormalities of serum free amino acid concentrations, but renal conservation of essential amino acids is not impaired.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To describe changes in blood constituents of horses after oral and IV administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and to determine whether the changes are dose dependent.

Animals

6 adult Standardbred mares.

Procedure

3 oral doses (1,500, 1,000, and 250 mg/kg of body weight) or 1 intravenous dose (250 mg/kg, 5% solution) of NaHCO3 in 3 L of water, or water (3 L orally), were given to the mares; then changes in blood constituents were measured. Access to food and water was denied during the experiment. Blood samples were collected immediately before treatment and at hourly intervals for 12 hours after treatment, and were analyzed for blood gas tensions; serum osmolality; serum sodium, potassium, chloride, and creatinine concentrations; PCV; and total solids concentration in plasma.

Results

All NaHCO3 treatments induced significant (P < 0.05) metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, and hyperosmolality for at least 8 hours. In mares given the 1,500- and 1,000-mg doses of NaHCO3 orally, hypercapnia persisted for at least 12 hours, whereas hypercapnia lasted 2 hours in mares given the 250-mg dose orally or IV (P < 0.05). A tendency for reduction in PCV, proteins in plasma concentration, and serum concentration of chloride was observed 1 hour after IV administered doses of NaHCO3.

Conclusions

Oral or IV administration of NaHCO3 (≥ 250 mg/kg) to resting horses without ad libitum access to water induces significant and persistent acidbase and electrolyte changes. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:658–663)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To describe changes in renal function of horses after oral and IV administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and to determine whether changes are dose dependent.

Animals

6 Standardbred mares.

Procedure

Blood and urine samples for determination of renal function were collected immediately before and at hourly intervals for 12 hours after administration of each of 3 oral doses (1,500, 1,000, and 250 mg/kg of body weight, in 3 L of water) and 1 IV dose (250 mg/kg, 5% solution) of NaHCO3, or water (3 L orally).

Results

NaHCO3 induced increases in urine flow; electrolyte-free water reabsorption; urine concentrations of sodium and bicarbonate; fractional excretion of sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate; urinary excretion and clearance of sodium and bicarbonate; urine pH and anion gap; and mean plasma concentration of antidiuretic hormone. NaHCO3 induced attenuation in reduction with time of urine excretion and clearance of potassium, chloride, and osmoles, and induced reduction in urine osmolality. Plasma aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and glomerular filtration rate were not modified.

Conclusions

Renal responses to NaHCO3 load emphasize conservation of plasma volume and re-establishment of acid-base balance over control of hyperosmolality by means of diuresis, natriuresis, and increased bicarbonaturia. These responses imply a large fluid shift from the extravascular space to the vascular compartment, which was eliminated via diuresis, thus preventing hypervolemia. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:664–671)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Urethral pressures profiles (upp) obtained by use of microtransducer catheters were determined in 8 anestrous sexually intact female Beagles during general anesthesia. A upp study consisted of 3 consecutive recordings, and 4 upp studies were repeated at an interval of 5 days in each dog. Maximal urethral pressure (cm of H2O), bladder pressure (cm of H2O), and anatomic urethral length (cm) were recorded. Maximal urethral closure pressure (cm of H2O) was calculated.

Mean ± sd (for all measurements) maximal urethral closure pressure was 12.8 ± 5.6 cm of H2O (range, 2.4 to 25.2 cm of H2O). Maximal urethral closure pressure was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased during the first recording period (11.4 ± 5.8 cm of H2O), compared with the second (13.0 ± 5.2 cm of H2O) or third (14.1 ± 5.7 cm of H2O) recording periods within a upp study (3 consecutive recordings). Mean maximal difference in urethral closure pressure during a single upp study was 4.8 ± 2.4 cm of H2O. Significant difference in maximal urethral closure pressure was not observed between studies.

Mean (for all measurements) anatomic urethral length was 6.2 ± 0.9 cm (4.1 to 7.8 cm). Anatomic urethral length was significantly (P < 0.05) less during the first recording period (6.1 ± 0.9 cm), compared with values for the second and third periods (6.3 ± 0.9cm, 6.4 ± 0.9 cm respectively). Anatomic urethral length for time 3 was significantly (P < 0.05) less than the value for time 1 (5.8 ± 0.7 cm vs 6.6 ± 0.8 cm).

We conclude that the microtransducer catheter technique for measurement of upp was reproducible during a single study and between successive studies.

This method is useful in documenting maximal urethral pressure, maximal urethral closure pressure, and anatomic urethral length in clinically normal sexually intact female dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research