OBJECTIVE To determine and compare the effect of hoof boots (HBs) and shoes with a toe extension on stance duration, ground reaction force, and sole length in contact with the ground in nonlame horses during walking.
ANIMALS 6 nonlame Standardbreds.
PROCEDURES Force plate gait analyses of the forelimbs were performed while the horses were walking barefoot before manipulation of feet (baseline), while the horses were walking fitted with HBs, while the horses were walking shod with toe-extension shoes, and while the horses were walking barefoot after shoe removal. Horses underwent radiography of both forelimb feet to determine the sole length in contact with the ground when barefoot, wearing HBs, and shod with toe-extension shoes. Stance duration, ground reaction force, and sole length were compared among the various walking sessions.
RESULTS Compared with baseline findings, stance duration increased significantly when horses were fitted with HBs (7%) or toe-extension shoes (5%). Peak forelimb ground reaction force was similar among walking sessions; however, time of braking force peak was significantly greater during the stance phase only when horses wore HBs. Also, the sole length in contact with the ground was significantly longer in horses fitted with HBs (14.3 cm) or shod with the toe-extension shoes (17.6 cm), compared with that for one of the barefoot hooves (12.7 cm).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In nonlame horses, use of HBs prolonged the stance time and time of braking force peak, which is indicative of a slower deceleration phase during limb impact with the ground. Also, the use of HBs prolonged the deceleration phase of the stride and increased the sole length in contact with the ground.
Objective—To determine mass, center of mass (COM), and moment of inertia (ie, body segment parameters [BSPs]) of hind limb segments by use of a noninvasive method based on computerized tomography (CT) in Labrador Retrievers with and without cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease and to provide regression equations to estimate BSPs of normal, CCL-deficient, and contralateral hind limbs.
Animals—14 clinically normal and 10 CCL-deficient Labrador Retrievers.
Procedures—Bone, muscle, and fat areas were identified via CT. Mass, COM, and moment of inertia were determined on the basis of tissue densities in the thigh, crus, and foot segments. Regression models were developed to determine predictive equations to estimate BSP on the basis of simple morphometric measurements.
Results—The thigh and crus of CCL-deficient limbs weighed less than in contralateral segments. Thighs weighed less in CCL-deficient than in normal limbs. The thigh moment of inertia was less in CCL-deficient than in contralateral limbs. The crural COM was located more distally in normal limbs, compared with other limbs. Predictive equations to estimate BSP varied by parameter, body segment, and limb status.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—BSPs of the thigh and crus varied with segment and status of the hind limb in Labrador Retrievers with or without CCL disease. Equations to estimate BSP on the basis of simple morphometric measurements were proposed, providing a basis for nonterminal studies of inverse dynamics of the hind limbs in Labrador Retrievers. This approach may offer new strategies to investigate the pathogenesis of nontraumatic joint diseases.
Objective—To determine the safety and short-term efficacy of intrabursal administration of botulinum toxin type B (BTXB) to alleviate lameness in horses with degenerative injury to the podotrochlear apparatus (PA).
Animals—10 Quarter Horses with degenerative injury to the PA.
Procedures—Degenerative injury to the PA was confirmed with diagnostic analgesia and imaging. Then, BTXB (3.8 to 4.5 U/kg) was injected into the podotrochlear (navicular) bursa of each horse. Three horses were used in a safety evaluation. Subsequently, video recordings of lameness evaluations were obtained for 7 client-owned horses 5 days before (baseline) and 7 and 14 days after BTXB treatment and used to determine the effect of BTXB injection on lameness; 1 horse was removed from the study 8 days after BTXB treatment. Three investigators who were unaware of the treated forelimbs or time points separately reviewed the recordings and graded the lameness of both forelimbs of the horses.
Results—Improvement in lameness of the treated forelimbs was detected at 1 or both time points after BTXB administration in all horses. However, all horses had some degree of lameness at the end of the study. Two horses developed transient increases in lameness 48 to 72 hours after treatment; lameness resolved uneventfully.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intrabursal injection of BTXB temporarily alleviated chronic lameness in horses with degenerative injury to the PA, without causing serious short-term adverse effects. Further investigation into the potential use of BTXB in horses affected by degenerative injury to the PA is warranted.