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  • Author or Editor: David E. Freeman x
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Objective—To determine characteristics of the inflammatory reaction in the jejunum of horses in response to various mechanical manipulations.

Animals—12 adult warmblood horses without gastrointestinal tract disorders.

Procedures—The proximal aspect of the jejunum in each horse was divided into 5 segments, and the following manipulations were performed: manual emptying, placement of Doyen forceps, enterotomy alone, enterotomy with mucosal abrasion, and serosal abrasion. Jejunum samples were collected before (control), immediately after, and 30 minutes after the end of manipulations and histologically evaluated to determine distribution of neutrophils and eosinophils.

Results—Macroscopically, all manipulations resulted in jejunal hemorrhage and edema. Compared with control samples, neutrophil numbers were significantly higher after manipulations in the serosa (after all manipulation types), circular muscle layer (after manual emptying), submucosa (after placement of Doyen forceps), and mucosa (after all manipulations except enterotomy alone). Eosinophil numbers were significantly higher in the submucosa after mechanical abrasion of the serosa and manual emptying versus control samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated mechanical manipulation of the jejunum resulted in local inflammatory reactions characterized predominantly by infiltration of neutrophils. This could contribute to the development of postoperative ileus or adhesions in horses without macroscopically detectable injury of the jejunum during surgery.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To examine effects of continuous rate infusion of lidocaine on transmural neutrophil infiltration in equine intestine subjected to manipulation only and remote to ischemic intestine.

ANIMALS 14 healthy horses.

PROCEDURES Ventral midline celiotomy was performed (time 0). Mild ischemia was induced in segments of jejunum and large colon. A 1-m segment of jejunum was manipulated by massaging the jejunal wall 10 times. Horses received lidocaine (n = 7) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (7) throughout anesthesia. Biopsy specimens were collected and used to assess tissue injury, neutrophil influx, cyclooxygenase expression, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression at 0, 1, and 4 hours after manipulation and ischemia. Transepithelial resistance (TER) and mannitol flux were measured by use of Ussing chambers.

RESULTS Lidocaine did not consistently decrease neutrophil infiltration in ischemic, manipulated, or control tissues at 4 hours. Lidocaine significantly reduced circular muscle and overall scores for cyclooxygenase-2 expression in manipulated tissues. Manipulated tissues had significantly less HIF-1α expression at 4 hours than did control tissues. Mucosa from manipulated and control segments obtained at 4 hours had lower TER and greater mannitol flux than did control tissues at 0 hours. Lidocaine did not significantly decrease calprotectin expression. Severity of neutrophil infiltration was similar in control, ischemic, and manipulated tissues at 4 hours.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Manipulated jejunum did not have a significantly greater increase in neutrophil infiltration, compared with 4-hour control (nonmanipulated) jejunum remote to sites of manipulation, ischemia, and reperfusion. Lidocaine did not consistently reduce neutrophil infiltration in jejunum.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research