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  • Author or Editor: David E. Freeman x
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Objectives—To establish reference values for the range of the number of eosinophils found in equine gastrointestinal mucosa and to describe the distribution of this cell within the equine gastrointestinal mucosa.

Sample Population—Gastrointestinal mucosal specimens from 14 adult horses euthanatized for reasons other than gastrointestinal disease.

Procedures—Gastrointestinal mucosal specimens were collected and grouped according to their anatomic regions. For histologic examination slides were stained with Luna's eosinophil stain to determine eosinophil accumulation and distribution. The mucosa was divided into 5 sections for each anatomic location, and the percentage of eosinophils in each of the 5 sections relative to the total eosinophil count in all sections was determined. Additionally, the number of eosinophils per square millimeter of mucosa was calculated as a measure of the degree of eosinophil accumulation.

Results—Lowest numbers of eosinophils were found in the stomach, and numbers increased from there to the cecum, then decreased from the ascending colon (right ventral colon, left ventral colon, pelvic flexure, left dorsal colon, and right dorsal colon) to small colon. In all gastrointestinal sections, most eosinophils were located near the muscularis mucosae and were rarely found near or on the luminal surface of the mucosa.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The distribution of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract of horses followed a pattern within the mucosa and between different sections of the gastrointestinal tract. The derived reference values and distribution data could be used to detect changes in eosinophil response in the equine gastrointestinal mucosa caused by diseases states.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the effect of large colon ischemia and reperfusion on concentrations of the inflammatory neutrophilic protein calprotectin and other clinicopathologic variables in jugular and colonic venous blood in horses.

Animals—6 healthy horses.

Procedures—Horses were anesthetized, and ischemia was induced for 1 hour followed by 4 hours of reperfusion in a segment of the pelvic flexure of the large colon. Blood samples were obtained before anesthesia, before induction of ischemia, 1 hour after the start of ischemia, and 1, 2, and 4 hours after the start of reperfusion from jugular veins and veins of the segment of the large colon that underwent ischemia and reperfusion. A sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of equine calprotectin. Serum calprotectin concentrations and values of blood gas, hematologic, and biochemical analysis variables were determined.

Results—Large colon ischemia caused metabolic acidosis, a significant increase in lactate and potassium concentrations and creatine kinase activities, and a nonsignificant decrease in glucose concentrations in colonic venous blood samples. Values of these variables after reperfusion were similar to values before ischemia. Ischemia and reperfusion induced activation of an inflammatory response characterized by an increase in neutrophil cell turnover rate in jugular and colonic venous blood samples and calprotectin concentrations in colonic venous blood samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that large colon ischemia and reperfusion caused local and systemic inflammation in horses. Serum calprotectin concentration may be useful as a marker of this inflammatory response.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To purify and characterize equine vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) from equine serum and to evaluate plasma concentrations of VDBP in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal injury or disease.

ANIMALS 13 healthy laboratory animals (8 mice and 5 rabbits), 61 healthy horses, 12 horses with experimentally induced intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR), and 59 horses with acute gastrointestinal diseases.

PROCEDURES VDBP was purified from serum of 2 healthy horses, and recombinant equine VDBP was obtained through a commercial service. Equine VDBP was characterized by mass spectrometry. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were raised against equine VDBP, and a rocket immunoelectrophoresis assay for equine VDBP was established. Plasma samples from 61 healthy horses were used to establish working VDBP reference values for study purposes. Plasma VDBP concentrations were assessed at predetermined time points in horses with IR and in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases.

RESULTS The working reference range for plasma VDBP concentration in healthy horses was 531 to 1,382 mg/L. Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased after 1 hour of ischemia in horses with IR, compared with values prior to induction of ischemia, and were significantly lower in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases with a colic duration of < 12 hours than in healthy horses.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased in horses with acute gastrointestinal injury or disease. Further studies and the development of a clinically relevant assay are needed to establish the reliability of VDBP as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research