OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of grape seed extract (GSE), lutein, and fish oil containing omega-3 fatty acids on oxidative stress, migration, proliferation, and viability of lens epithelial cells (LECs).
SAMPLE Lens capsules or cultured LECs obtained from canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES An antioxidant reductive capacity assay was used to determine reducing capability of each substance. The LECs were cultured and incubated with various substances, including N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), when appropriate, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as positive and vehicle control substances, respectively. A dichlorofluorescein assay was used to evaluate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine cell viability. Ex vivo posterior capsule opacification (PCO) was used to evaluate LEC migration and proliferation.
RESULTS Antioxidant reductive effects of GSE surpassed those of NAC, lutein, and fish oil containing omega-3 fatty acids. The GSE reduced ROS production in LECs, compared with the DMSO vehicle control, whereas lutein was pro-oxidative. All test substances reduced cell viability. Ex vivo PCO was not altered by GSE, was decreased by lutein, and was increased by fish oil containing omega-3 fatty acids, compared with results for the DMSO vehicle control.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Only GSE had significant antioxidant capabilities and reduced ROS production; however, no effect on ex vivo PCO was detected. Fish oil containing omega-3 fatty acids increased ex vivo PCO. No conclusions could be made regarding antioxidant effects of these substances on LECs. These findings suggested that the substances will not decrease PCO.