To identify and characterize abnormalities of iris vasculature in dogs with diabetes mellitus, compared to clinically normal, age-matched control dogs, by means of anterior segment angiography.
10 dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus and 10 age-matched control dogs with no ocular or systemic disease.
The day before iris vasculature abnormality (IVA) assessment, all dogs underwent complete physical and ophthalmic examinations and baseline clinicopathologic analyses. For diabetic dogs, serum fructosamine concentration and a 12-hour blood glucose concentration curve were generated. The next day, all dogs were sedated and anterior segment angiography (following IV injection of indocyanine green [1 mg/kg] and subsequently sodium fluorescein [20 mg/kg]) was performed with a full-spectrum camera and camera adapter system. Group findings were compared, and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify potential factor associations with IVAs.
During anterior segment angiography, the arterial, capillary, and venous phases were identified in all dogs. Times to onset of all phases in diabetic dogs were significantly less than those in control dogs. Vascular disruptions within the peripupillary region (evident following sodium fluorescein administration) were common in diabetic dogs. Severity of dye leakage into the iris stroma and aqueous humor was significantly greater in diabetic dogs than in control dogs. Duration of disease, mean blood glucose concentration, and serum fructosamine concentration were significantly associated with IVAs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
In diabetic dogs, anterior segment angiography revealed IVAs that were not evident in control dogs. The severity of those changes appeared to be associated with disease duration and blood glucose regulation.
To evaluate the urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratio (UCCR) for the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism (HA) in dogs and to determine whether the method of urine cortisol measurement affects results.
41 dogs with naturally occurring HA and 107 dogs with nonadrenal illness.
Urine samples were prospectively collected from dogs undergoing testing for HA. Urine cortisol concentrations were measured at a veterinary diagnostic laboratory using either a radioimmunoassay (RIA) or a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess UCCR performance by both methods for HA diagnosis. Sensitivities, specificities, accuracies, and predictive values were calculated for various cutpoints.
The areas under the ROC curves for UCCR diagnosis of HA were 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.00) and 1.00 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.00) when urine cortisol was determined by RIA and CLIA, respectively. An RIA UCCR of ≤ 2 was 97.2% sensitive, 93.6% specific, and 94.7% accurate for HA diagnosis, whereas a CLIA UCCR of ≤ 10 was 100% sensitive, specific, and accurate. An RIA UCCR > 4 and a CLIA UCCR of > 10 had negative predictive values of 100%.
The UCCR was an accurate diagnostic test for HA in this study population, although equivocal results are possible. Case characteristics, method of cortisol measurement, and laboratory-specific cutpoints must be considered when interpreting results.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) after IV and oral administration to dogs and effects of TTM administration on trace mineral concentrations.
ANIMALS 8 adult Beagles and Beagle crossbreds (4 sexually intact males and 4 sexually intact females).
PROCEDURES Dogs received TTM (1 mg/kg) IV and orally in a randomized crossover study. Serum molybdenum and copper concentrations were measured via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in samples obtained 0 to 72 hours after administration. Pharmacokinetics was determined via noncompartmental analysis.
RESULTS For IV administration, mean ± SD terminal elimination rate constant, maximum concentration, area under the curve, and half-life were 0.03 ± 0.01 hours−1, 4.9 ± 0.6 μg/mL, 30.7 ± 5.4 μg/mL•h, and 27.7 ± 6.8 hours, respectively. For oral administration, mean ± SD terminal elimination rate constant, time to maximum concentration, maximum concentration, area under the curve, and half-life were 0.03 ± 0.01 hours−1, 3.0 ± 3.5 hours, 0.2 ± 0.4 μg/mL, 6.5 ± 8.0 μg/mL•h, and 26.8 ± 8.0 hours, respectively. Oral bioavailability was 21 ± 22%. Serum copper concentrations increased significantly after IV and oral administration. Emesis occurred after IV (2 dogs) and oral administration (3 dogs).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pharmacokinetics for TTM after a single IV and oral administration was determined for clinically normal dogs. Absorption of TTM after oral administration was variable. Increased serum copper concentrations suggested that TTM mobilized tissue copper. Further studies will be needed to evaluate the potential therapeutic use of TTM in copper-associated chronic hepatitis of dogs.
OBJECTIVE To measure blood lead concentrations (BLCs) in dogs living in Flint, Mich, following a declared water crisis and to assess potential associations of BLCs with demographic data, water sources, and clinical signs in these dogs.
DESIGN Cross-sectional study.
ANIMALS 284 dogs residing in Flint, Mich (test population), and 47 dogs residing in East Lansing, Mich (control population), and immediately adjacent areas.
PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected at free screening clinics in Flint (test population) and at the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Medical Center (control population). Owners of test population dogs completed questionnaires providing demographic and clinical information. Hematologic evaluations were performed; BLCs were measured by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry.
RESULTS 4 of 284 test population dogs had BLCs > 50 ppb; an additional 20 had BLCs > 20 ppb. Overall, BLCs of test population dogs were higher than those of control dogs. Within the test population, young dogs (≤ 2 years of age) had higher BLCs than old dogs (≥ 6 years of age). Only 7.2% of test population dogs were drinking unfiltered tap water at the time of screening; however, dogs that had been receiving filtered or bottled water for ≤ 3 months before screening had higher BLCs than did those that received such water for > 3 months.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Taken together, findings suggested that the impact of the Flint water crisis extended to companion animals. Results highlighted the importance of maintaining awareness of lead exposure and considering both human and animal well-being in cases of environmental toxicant exposures.
To determine the frequency of previously reported coding variants in the ATP7A, ATP7B, and RETN genes in a US population of Labrador Retrievers and to explore potential associations of these genotypes with pathologic hepatic copper accumulation.
Archived hepatic specimens from 90 Labrador Retrievers collected between 2013 and 2021.
The Michigan State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory database was searched to identify archived tissues from Labrador Retrievers that had undergone hepatic histopathologic assessment. Cases were classified into control, copper-associated hepatopathy (CAH), and intermediate populations on the basis of histopathologic features and hepatic copper accumulation. The DNA was extracted from archived tissues and genotyped for reported variants in the 3 genes. Allele frequencies were determined, and associations of genotypes with CAH status were evaluated.
29 control dogs, 45 CAH dogs, and 16 intermediate dogs were included in the study. The overall ATP7A and RETN variant allele frequencies were 30% and 13%, respectively, and were not significantly different among control, CAH, and intermediate populations. The ATP7B variant allele frequency was significantly higher in the CAH population (30%) as compared to the control population (13%). However, 21 of 45 (47%) CAH dogs did not have an ATP7B variant allele whereas 7 of 28 (25%) control dogs did have an ATP7B variant allele.
Study results supported a contributory role for the ATP7B variant in CAH pathogenesis in Labrador Retrievers. However, the application of genetic testing in a clinical setting is complicated by genotypic variability within healthy and diseased dogs.