To determine the change in mean hepatic apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) during body weight gain in cats by use of MRI.
12 purpose-bred adult neutered male cats.
The cats underwent general health and MRI examination at time 0 (before dietary intervention) and time 1 (after 40 weeks of being fed high-energy food ad libitum). Sequences included multiple-echo gradient-recalled echo MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI with 3 b values (0, 400, and 800 s/mm2). Variables (body weight and the HFF and ADC in selected regions of interest in the liver parenchyma) were compared between time points by Wilcoxon paired-sample tests. Relationships among variables were assessed with generalized mixed-effects models.
Median body weight was 4.5 and 6.5 kg, mean ± SD HFF was 3.39 ± 0.89% and 5.37 ± 1.92%, and mean ± SD hepatic ADC was 1.21 ± 0.08 × 10−3 mm2/s and 1.01 ± 0.2 × 10−3 mm2/s at times 0 and 1, respectively. Significant differences between time points were found for body weight, HFF, and ADC. The HFF was positively associated with body weight and ADC was negatively associated with HFF.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Similar to findings in people, cats had decreasing hepatic ADC as HFF increased. Protons associated with fat tissue in the liver may reduce diffusivity, resulting in a lower ADC than in liver with lower HFF. Longer studies and evaluation of cats with different nutritional states are necessary to further investigate these findings.
OBJECTIVE To describe perfusion and diffusion characteristics of the liver, spleen, and kidneys of healthy adult male cats as determined by morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI.
ANIMALS 12 healthy adult male cats.
PROCEDURES Each cat was anesthetized. Morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI of the cranial aspect of the abdomen was performed. A region of interest (ROI) was established on MRI images for each of the following structures: liver, spleen, cortex and medulla of both kidneys, and skeletal muscle. Signal intensity was determined, and a time-intensity curve was generated for each ROI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated for the hepatic and splenic parenchyma and kidneys on diffusion-weighted MRI images. The normalized ADC for the liver was calculated as the ratio of the ADC for the hepatic parenchyma to the ADC for the splenic parenchyma.
RESULTS Perfusion-weighted MRI variables differed among the 5 ROIs. Median ADC of the hepatic parenchyma was 1.38 × 10−3 mm2/s, and mean ± SD normalized ADC for the liver was 1.86 ± 0.18. Median ADC of the renal cortex and renal medulla was 1.65 × 10−3 mm2/s and 1.93 × 10−3 mm2/s, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided preliminary baseline information about the diffusion and perfusion characteristics of structures in the cranial aspect of the abdomen of healthy adult male cats. Additional studies of cats of different sex and age groups as well as with and without cranial abdominal pathological conditions are necessary to validate and refine these findings.
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of 3 contrast medium injection techniques on attenuation values for canine adrenal glands during contrast-enhanced CT.
ANIMALS 9 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES 3 protocols were evaluated in a randomized cross-over design study: 700 mg of iodine/kg at a constant injection rate over 20 seconds (full-dose constant rate), the same dose at a rate following an exponential decay curve over 20 seconds (full-dose decelerated rate), and 350 mg of iodine/kg at a constant injection rate over 10 seconds (half-dose constant rate). Multislice CT images were obtained before and at predetermined time points after the start of contrast medium injection.
RESULTS Median peak attenuation values were 129, 133, and 87 Hounsfield units with the full-dose constant rate, full-dose decelerated rate, and half-dose constant rate injection protocols, respectively. Peak attenuation differed significantly between the full-dose constant rate and half-dose constant rate injection protocols and between the full-dose decelerated rate and half-dose constant rate injection protocols. Median time to peak attenuation did not differ significantly among injection methods and was 30, 23, and 15 seconds for the full-dose constant rate, full-dose decelerated rate, and half-dose constant rate injections, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The dose of contrast medium and the timing of postinjection CT scanning were main determinants of peak attenuation for adrenal glands in healthy dogs; effects of the 3 injection protocols on attenuation were minor. The exponentially decelerated injection method was subjectively complex. A constant injection protocol delivering 700 mg of iodine/kg over 20 seconds, with scans obtained approximately 30 seconds after starting contrast medium injection, provided images with maximum adrenal gland attenuation values. (Am J Vet Res 2016;77:144–150)