To evaluate the effectiveness of a novel fluorescence tracer agent, MB-102, for conducting ocular angiography in dogs.
10 ophthalmologically normal dogs (2 to 4 years old) and 10 dogs with retinal degeneration or primary open-angle glaucoma (< 6 years old).
While anesthetized, all dogs received sodium fluorescein (20 mg/kg, IV) or MB-102 (20 or 40 mg/kg, IV) first and then the other dye in a second treatment session 2 days later in a randomized crossover design. Anterior fluorescence angiography was performed on one eye and posterior fluorescence angiography on the other. Imaging was performed with a full-spectrum camera and camera adaptor system. Filter sets that were tailored to match the excitation and emission characteristics of each angiographic fluorescent agent were used.
All phases and phase intervals during anterior and posterior segment angiography were identified, regardless of the dye used. However, agent fluorescence and visualization of the iridal blood vessels were hindered in some dogs, irrespective of agent, owing to the degree of iridal pigmentation present. No significant difference was noted between the 2 dyes in any phase or phase interval, and slight improvement in image contrast was observed with MB-102 during the venous phases owing to a reduction of vessel wall staining in both normal and diseased eyes.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that MB-102 would be useful for conducting ocular angiography in dogs.
To identify and characterize abnormalities of iris vasculature in dogs with diabetes mellitus, compared to clinically normal, age-matched control dogs, by means of anterior segment angiography.
10 dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus and 10 age-matched control dogs with no ocular or systemic disease.
The day before iris vasculature abnormality (IVA) assessment, all dogs underwent complete physical and ophthalmic examinations and baseline clinicopathologic analyses. For diabetic dogs, serum fructosamine concentration and a 12-hour blood glucose concentration curve were generated. The next day, all dogs were sedated and anterior segment angiography (following IV injection of indocyanine green [1 mg/kg] and subsequently sodium fluorescein [20 mg/kg]) was performed with a full-spectrum camera and camera adapter system. Group findings were compared, and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify potential factor associations with IVAs.
During anterior segment angiography, the arterial, capillary, and venous phases were identified in all dogs. Times to onset of all phases in diabetic dogs were significantly less than those in control dogs. Vascular disruptions within the peripupillary region (evident following sodium fluorescein administration) were common in diabetic dogs. Severity of dye leakage into the iris stroma and aqueous humor was significantly greater in diabetic dogs than in control dogs. Duration of disease, mean blood glucose concentration, and serum fructosamine concentration were significantly associated with IVAs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
In diabetic dogs, anterior segment angiography revealed IVAs that were not evident in control dogs. The severity of those changes appeared to be associated with disease duration and blood glucose regulation.
Objective—To investigate whether differences existed between clinically normal dogs and dogs with goniodysgenesis-related glaucoma (GDRG) in serum autoantibodies against optic nerve antigens.
Animals—16 dogs with GDRG, 17 healthy dogs with unremarkable pectinate ligament and iridocorneal angle morphology, and 13 euthanized dogs with no major ocular abnormalities or underlying diseases.
Procedures—Western blotting was performed with optic nerve extracts from the euthanized dogs as an antigen source and serum from clinically normal dogs and dogs with GDRG as a primary antibody (autoantibody) source. Blots were evaluated for presence and density of bands.
Results—Multiple bands were identified on western blots from all dogs with GDRG and all clinically normal dogs, with a high degree of variability among individual dogs. Dogs with GDRG were significantly more likely than healthy dogs to have bands present at 38, 40, and 68 kDa. Dogs with GDRG had significant increases in autoreactivity at 40 and 53 kDa and a significant decrease in autoreactivity at 48 kDa.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Significant differences in serum autoantibodies against optic nerve antigens were found in dogs with versus without GDRG. Although it remains unclear whether these differences were part of the pathogenesis of disease or were sequelae to glaucomatous changes, these findings provide support for the hypothesis that immune-mediated mechanisms play a role in the development or progression of GDRG. However, the high degree of variability among individual dogs and the considerable overlap between groups suggest that the clinical usefulness of this technique for distinguishing dogs with GDRG from clinically normal dogs is likely limited.