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  • Author or Editor: Christine A. Martin x
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Zoometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis were evaluated as methods of body composition determination in healthy cats. Zoometric and impedance measurements were taken on 22 anesthetized adult cats of various ages, genders, breeds, and body weights. The cats were then euthanatized. The bodies were processed through a tissue homogenizer and free-catch specimens were taken, freeze-dried, and analyzed for total body water, protein, fat, potassium, and ash content. Stepwise regression analysis was implemented to identify statistically significant relationships between the chemically determined dependent variables (total body water, protein, potassium, fat-free mass, fat mass, and percent body fat) and the zoometric measurements, with or without bioelectrical impedance analysis. Statistical analysis revealed high correlations between the dependent variables and the corresponding predicted values of those variables. Body weight alone was a poor predictor of body composition in these cats. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that zoometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements may serve as practical, noninvasive, simple, and accurate methods for estimating body composition in domestic cats.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine reasons for epidural catheter placement among horses examined at a veterinary teaching hospital, efficacy of epidural administration of analgesics, duration of catheter placement, reasons for catheter removal, and complications encountered.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—43 horses.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed.

Results—A total of 50 epidural catheters were placed in the 43 horses. Underlying conditions included fractures, lacerations, septic arthritis, myositis, perineal injuries, and cellulitis. Horses ranged from 2 to 21 years old and weighed between 365 and 795 kg (803 and 1,749 lb). Median duration of catheter placement was 96 hours (range, 1.5 to 480 hours). The response to epidural drug administration was reported as positive in 34 horses and negative in 4. There was no apparent response in 2 horses, and response could not be determined in 3. Three temporary patient-related complications associated with epidural catheter administration were observed. Technical problems associated with the epidural catheters included dislodgement of the catheter itself (7 catheters) or of the adapter or filter (5), obstruction (5), and leakage (5). Twenty-two catheters were removed because of resolution of the underlying condition, and 10 were removed because of complications. For 6 catheters, the reason for catheter removal was not recorded. The remaining 12 catheters were in place when the horses were euthanatized .

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that epidural catheterization can be used successfully for repeated epidural delivery of analgesics and anesthetics in horses with various clinical conditions. Complications associated with epidural catheters or epidural drug administration were infrequent and transient. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1394–1398)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine effects of fentanyl, lidocaine, and a fentanyl-lidocaine combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane preventing motor movement (MACNM) in dogs.

ANIMALS 6 adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane in oxygen 3 times (1-week intervals). Baseline MACNM (MACNM-B) was determined starting 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Dogs then received 1 of 3 treatments IV: fentanyl (loading dose, 15 μg/kg; constant rate infusion [CRI], 6 μg/kg/h), lidocaine (loading dose, 2 mg/kg; CRI, 6 mg/kg/h), and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the same doses. Determination of treatment MACNM (MACNM-T) was initiated 90 minutes after start of the CRI. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of each treatment MACNM measurement for determination of plasma concentrations of fentanyl and lidocaine.

RESULTS Mean ± SEM overall MACNM-B for the 3 treatments was 2.70 ± 0.27 vol%. The MACNM decreased from MACNM-B to MACNM-T by 39%, 21%, and 55% for fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. This decrease differed significantly among treatments. Plasma fentanyl concentration was 3.25 and 2.94 ng/mL for fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma lidocaine concentration was 2,570 and 2,417 ng/mL for lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma fentanyl and lidocaine concentrations did not differ significantly between fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination or between lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CRIs of fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the doses used were associated with clinically important and significant decreases in the MACNM of sevoflurane in dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To assess the efficacy of laparoscopic adhesiolysis in the treatment of experimentally induced adhesions in foals.

Animals—8 healthy pony foals.

Procedure—Celiotomy was performed and adhesions created at the jejunoileal junction and at sites 0.5 and 1 m proximal to this junction, using a serosal abrasion method. Ten days after celiotomy, exploratory laparoscopy was performed. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis was performed in the treatment group only (4 foals, randomly selected). Thirty days after the exploratory laparoscopy, a final laparoscopic examination was performed, and the foals were euthanatized. The number and characteristics of abdominal adhesions were recorded during laparoscopy 10 and 30 days after celiotomy and during necropsy.

Results—At 30 days after celiotomy, the number of adhesions in the control group was significantly higher than the number in the treatment group. In the control group, all adhesions observed during the exploratory laparoscopy were still evident at the final laparoscopy and necropsy. In the treatment group, adhesions did not form again after separation. During final laparoscopy and necropsy, a focal adhesion between the omentum and site of the initial laparoscope portal was observed in 5 of 8 foals.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The serosal abrasion model is useful for studying abdominal adhesions in foals. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis was an effective technique to break down experimentally induced adhesions in the early maturation stage of formation in pony foals. Studies are required to investigate prevention of de novo adhesions at the laparoscope portal sites. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:289–294)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research