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- Author or Editor: Chloe B. Spertus x
- Ophthalmology x
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OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of topical ocular application of 1% trifluridine ophthalmic solution in dogs with experimentally induced recurrent ocular canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) infection.
ANIMALS 10 specific pathogen–free Beagles.
PROCEDURES 12 months prior to the beginning of the randomized, masked, placebo-controlled 30-day trial, latent ocular CHV-1 infection was experimentally induced in each dog by topical ocular inoculation of both eyes with a field strain of CHV-1. Recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection was induced by oral administration of prednisolone for 7 days (starting day 1). Starting on the fourth day of prednisolone administration, each dog received 1% trifluridine solution or artificial tears (placebo) topically in both eyes 6 times daily for 2 days and then 4 times daily for 12 days. Ophthalmic examinations were performed every 2 days, and ocular disease scores were calculated. Ocular samples for CHV-1 PCR assays and blood samples for clinicopathologic analyses and assessment of CHV-1 serum neutralization antibody titers were collected at predetermined intervals.
RESULTS Conjunctivitis was clinically detected in all dogs by day 4. Compared with dogs receiving placebo, mean and total clinical ocular disease scores were significantly lower and median CHV-1 shedding duration was significantly shorter for the trifluridine-treated dogs. Both groups had increasing CHV-1 serum neutralization antibody titers over time, but no significant differences between groups were detected. Clinicopathologic findings were unremarkable throughout the study.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical ocular application of 1% trifluridine ophthalmic solution was well tolerated and effective at reducing disease scores and viral shedding duration in dogs with experimentally induced ocular CHV-1 infection, but may require frequent administration.
OBJECTIVE To determine the in vitro half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of ganciclovir for canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) and to evaluate the efficacy of ganciclovir ophthalmic gel in dogs with experimentally induced ocular CHV-1 infection.
ANIMALS 10 specific pathogen–free adult Beagles.
PROCEDURES Cytotoxicity and EC50 of ganciclovir for CHV-1 were determined during in vitro experiments. During an in vivo experiment, dogs with experimentally induced ocular CHV-1 infections received 1 drop of 0.15% ganciclovir (ganciclovir group; n = 5) or artificial tear (control group; 5) ophthalmic gel in both eyes 5 times daily for 7 days, then 3 times daily for 7 days. For each dog, ophthalmic and confocal microscopic examinations were performed at predetermined times to determine severity of ocular disease and inflammation. Conjunctival swab specimens were collected at predetermined times for PCR assay analysis to determine CHV-1 shedding.
RESULTS No in vitro cytotoxic effects were observed for ganciclovir concentrations ≤ 500μM. The EC50 of ganciclovir for CHV-1 was 37.7μM. No adverse effects associated with ganciclovir were observed during the in vivo experiment. Mean ocular disease and inflammation scores for the ganciclovir group were significantly lower than those for the control group. Mean duration of CHV-1 shedding for the ganciclovir group (0.4 days) was significantly shorter than that for the control group (6.2 days).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical administration of 0.15% ganciclovir ophthalmic gel was well tolerated and effective in decreasing clinical disease scores, ocular tissue inflammation, and duration of viral shedding in dogs with experimentally induced ocular CHV-1 infection.