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To better understand spatial relationships between principal bronchi and other intrathoracic structures by use of CT images of dogs of various somatotypes.


93 dogs that underwent thoracic CT.


Information was collected from medical records regarding signalment and physical examination and echocardiographic findings. Two investigators recorded multiple measurements on a thoracic axial CT image from each dog.


Thoracic height-to-width ratio (H:W) was associated with left principal bronchus (LPB) and right principal bronchus (RPB) H:W, aortic-LPB separation, focal LPB narrowing, and aortic-vertebral overlap. Thoracic H:W was not associated with dog age, weight, sex, or brachycephalic breed. Twenty-five (27%) dogs had focal LPB narrowing, compared with 5 (5%) dogs with focal RPB narrowing (P < 0.001). Ten of 25 dogs had overlap or contact between vertebrae, aorta, LPB, and heart, suggesting a cumulative compressive effect on the LPB, while 15 had LPB-aorta contact and lack of contact between the aorta and thoracic vertebrae, suggesting an aortic constrictive effect on the LPB. None had LPB narrowing without contact from surrounding structures. Inter-rater agreement was high.


In dogs that underwent CT and were not selected for clinical suspicion of bronchial disease, principal bronchial morphology was associated with thoracic conformation. Focal LPB narrowing occurred more often than RPB narrowing. Focal LPB narrowing occurred with evidence of extraluminal compression, with or without contact between aorta and vertebrae. Brachycephalic breed could not be used for predicting thoracic H:W.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



An 8-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier–Poodle dog was evaluated for persistent pollakiuria and stranguria following routine cystotomy for calcium oxalate cystoliths.


The dog presented for a cystotomy with intermittent hematuria. Postoperative radiographs revealed no remaining cystoliths. Urine, cystolith, and bladder mucosal aerobic cultures were negative. Pollakiuria, stranguria, and hematuria developed immediately after surgery and persisted despite antibiotics. Ultrasound revealed suspected fibrous adhesions within the urinary bladder lumen connecting the dorsal and ventral bladder wall creating a septum. This was confirmed cystoscopically 4 weeks after surgery.


Cystoscopic-guided laser ablation was performed to incise abnormal tissue connecting the ventral and dorsal bladder wall using a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. Three weeks later, ultrasound revealed adhesion resolution though mild pollakiuria and stranguria persisted. Oxybutynin was prescribed and clinical signs resolved. At 27 months after ablation, hematuria occurred with recurrent cystoliths. These cystoliths were removed by percutaneous cystolithotomy, documenting a cystoscopically normal bladder wall. The patient had normal urination for 55.5 months after ablation, with normal bladder wall thickness on ultrasound repeated at 27 and 36 months after ablation.


To the authors’ knowledge, an adhesion creating a septum between the dorsal and ventral bladder wall has not been previously reported as a complication after cystotomy in any species and should be considered as a cause of persistent lower urinary signs after surgery. Ultrasound identified the lesion in this dog. Because bladder abnormalities can develop quickly after surgery, ultrasound might be considered if urine testing is not supportive of infection. Cystoscopic-guided laser ablation was a successful minimally invasive treatment in this case.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association