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  • Author or Editor: Cheryl S. Hedlund x
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Nineteen axial pattern skin flaps were used in 16 dogs and cats to provide skin for repair of extensive cutaneous defects. Retrospective evaluation of medical records was used to determine percentage flap survival, postoperative complications, and long-term outcome of axial pattern skin flaps. The most common indication for use of axial pattern flaps was to augment wound closure following tumor resection (n = 7). Other indications included trauma (n = 5), chronic nonhealing wounds (n = 4), urine-induced cellulitis (n = 1), idiopathic dermal necrosis (n = 1), and chronic lymphoplasmocytic dermatitis (n = 1). Mean flap survival (± sd) was 96% (± 8). Postoperative complications included wound drainage (n = 15), partial dehiscence of the sutured flap (n = 7), distal flap necrosis (n = 6), infection (n = 3), edema (n = 3), and seroma formation (n = 2). After a median follow-up time of 5 months, evaluation of animals indicated that surgery provided successful wound reconstruction with good cosmetic results. Reconstruction of large cutaneous defects is facilitated by axial pattern flap application regardless of cause of wound. Postoperative complications are common but amenable to standard wound management techniques such as drain placement and surgical debridement of devitalized distal flap skin.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To measure effects of carprofen on conductance and permeability to mannitol and histologic appearance in canine colonic mucosa.

Sample Population—Colonic mucosa from 13 mature mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Sections of mucosa from the transverse colon and proximal and distal portions of the descending colon were obtained immediately after dogs were euthanized. Sections were mounted in Ussing chambers. Carprofen (400 μg/mL) was added to the bathing solution for treated sections. Conductance was calculated at 15-minute intervals for 240 minutes. Flux of mannitol was calculated for three 1-hour periods. Histologic examination of sections was performed after experiments concluded. Conductance was graphed against time for each chamber, and area under each curve was calculated. Conductance × time, flux of mannitol, and frequency distribution of histologic findings were analyzed for an effect of region and carprofen.

Results—Carprofen significantly increased mean conductance × time, compared with values for control (untreated) sections for all regions of colon. Carprofen significantly increased mean flux of mannitol from period 1 to period 2 and from period 2 to period 3 for all regions of colon. Carprofen caused a significant proportion of sections to have severe sloughing of cells and erosions involving ≥ 10% of the epithelium, compared with control sections.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carprofen increased in vitro conductance and permeability to mannitol in canine colonic mucosa. Carprofen resulted in sloughing of cells and erosion of the colonic mucosa. These findings suggested that carprofen can compromise the integrity and barrier function of the colonic mucosa of dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To compare suture placement time, tension at skin separation and suture line failure, and mode of failure among 4 suture patterns.

DESIGN Randomized trial.

SAMPLE 60 skin specimens from the pelvic limbs of 30 purpose-bred Beagles.

PROCEDURES Skin specimens were harvested within 2 hours after euthanasia and tested within 6 hours after harvest. An 8-cm incision was made in each specimen and sutured with 1 of 4 randomly assigned suture patterns (simple interrupted, cruciate, intradermal, or subdermal). Suture placement time and percentage of skin apposition were evaluated. Specimens were mounted in a calibrated material testing machine and distracted until suture line failure. Tensile strength at skin-edge separation and suture-line failure and mode of failure were compared among the 4 patterns.

RESULTS Mean suture placement time for the cruciate pattern was significantly less than that for other patterns. Percentage of skin apposition did not differ among the 4 patterns. Mean tensile strength at skin-edge separation and suture-line failure for the simple interrupted and cruciate patterns were significantly higher than those for the intradermal and subdermal patterns. Mean tensile strength at skin-edge separation and suture-line failure did not differ significantly between the intradermal and subdermal patterns or the simple interrupted and cruciate patterns. The primary mode of failure for the simple interrupted pattern was suture breakage, whereas that for the cruciate, intradermal, and subdermal patterns was tissue failure.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested external skin sutures may be preferred for closure of incisions under tension to reduce risk of dehiscence.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine long-term outcomes and factors associated with those outcomes in dogs with gastroesophageal intussusception (GEI).


36 dogs with GEI evaluated at 16 veterinary hospitals from January 2000 through January 2018.


Medical records of included dogs were reviewed to collect information regarding signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, blood work and diagnostic imaging results, surgical findings, and outcome. Factors were evaluated for associations with various outcomes.


Median age of dogs with GEI was 13.2 months, and males (72% [26/36]) and German Shepherd Dogs (33% [12/36]) were most common. Vomiting (67% [24/36]) and regurgitation (33% [12/36]) were the most common clinical signs. Ten of 36 (28%) dogs were euthanized without treatment, and 26 (72%) underwent treatment (25 surgically and 1 endoscopically). Twenty-three of the 26 (88%) treated dogs survived to discharge; median survival time was 995 days. At last follow-up, 15 of the 23 (65%) surviving dogs remained alive and 8 (35%) had died for reasons related to persistent regurgitation (n = 6) or reasons unrelated to GEI (2). Of the 10 dogs for which owners were contacted, 7 had persistent regurgitation, the severity of which was reduced through managed feedings. Dogs with acute (≤ 7 days) clinical signs or a previous diagnosis of megaesophagus were more likely to have persistent regurgitation than were dogs without these factors.


Treatment should be considered for dogs with GEI given the high rate of survival to discharge and median survival time. Although persistent regurgitation was common after treatment, a satisfactory outcome was possible with medical management, including managed feedings and medications.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association